Umar - Military Expansion

Military Expansion

Wars of
Caliph Umar
Conquest of Eastern Roman Empire
  • Conquest of Syria (634–637)
  • Conquest of Palestine (635–636)
  • Campaigns in Eastern Anatolia (638)
  • Conquest of Armenia (638 & 644)
  • Conquest of Upper Egypt (640–641)
  • Conquest of Lower Egypt (641–642)
  • Conquest of North Africa (643)
Conquest of Sassanid Persian Empire
  • Conquest of Iraq (636–637)
  • Conquest of Isfahan & Tabaristan (642–643)
  • Conquest of Fars (642)
  • Conquest of Kerman & Makran (643–644)
  • Conquest of Sistan (643–644)
  • Conquest of Azerbaijan (643)
  • Conquest of Khurasan (643–644)

It is widely believed that Umar stressed more on consolidating his power and political influence in the conquered land, rather than pursuing conquests. Nevertheless, under Umar the Islamic empire grew at an unprecedented rate. In 638, after the conquest of Syria, Umar dismissed Khalid, his most successful general, owing to his ever-growing fame and influence. He was quoted as doing this because he wanted the people to know that victory came from God, not the general. Later however Umar regretted this decision. The military conquest were partially terminated between 638–639 during the years of great famine and plague in Arabia and Levant respectively. During his reign Levant, Egypt, Cyrenaica, Tripolitania, Fezzan, Eastern Anatolia, almost whole of Sassanid Persian Empire including Bactria, Persia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Caucasus and Makran were annexed to Islamic Empire. According to one estimate more than 4050 cities were captured during these military conquest. Prior to his death in 644, Umar had ceased all military expeditions apparently to consolidate his rule in Egypt and the newly conquered Sassanid Empire (642–644). At his death in November 644, his rule extended from present day Libya in the west to the Indus river in the east and the Oxus river in the north.

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