In molecular biology and genetics, a transcription factor (sometimes called a sequence-specific DNA-binding factor) is a protein that binds to specific DNA sequences, thereby controlling the flow (or transcription) of genetic information from DNA to mRNA. Transcription factors perform this function alone or with other proteins in a complex, by promoting (as an activator), or blocking (as a repressor) the recruitment of RNA polymerase (the enzyme that performs the transcription of genetic information from DNA to RNA) to specific genes.
A defining feature of transcription factors is that they contain one or more DNA-binding domains (DBDs), which attach to specific sequences of DNA adjacent to the genes that they regulate. Additional proteins such as coactivators, chromatin remodelers, histone acetylases, deacetylases, kinases, and methylases, while also playing crucial roles in gene regulation, lack DNA-binding domains, and, therefore, are not classified as transcription factors.
|Transcription factor glossary|
|• transcription – copying of DNA by RNA polymerase into RNA|
|• factor – a substance, such as a protein, that contributes to the cause of a specific biochemical reaction or bodily process|
|• transcriptional regulation – controlling the rate of gene transcription for example by helping or hindering RNA polymerase binding to DNA|
|• upregulation, activation, or promotion – increase the rate of gene transcription|
|• downregulation, repression, or suppression – decrease the rate of gene transcription|
|• coactivator – a protein that works with transcription factors to increase the rate of gene transcription|
|• corepressor – a protein that works with transcription factors to decrease the rate of gene transcription|
Other articles related to "transcription factor, transcription, transcription factors":
... DNA Scanning Model In this model the transcription factor and cofactor complex form at the cis-regulatory module and then continues to move along the DNA sequence until it finds the target gene promoter ... Looping Model In this model the transcription factor binds to the cis-regulatory module, which then causes the looping of the DNA sequence and allows for the interaction with the target gene promoter ... The transcription factor-cis-regulatory module complex causes the looping of the DNA sequence slowly towards the target promoter and forms a stable looped configuration ...
... nucleotide binding • RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding • RNA polymerase II transcription factor binding transcription factor activity involved in negative regulation of ... Repression of transcription by this gene product can occur through interactions with other repressors, by the recruitment of proteins involved in histone deacetylation ...
... DNA binding • sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity • transcription factor binding • zinc ion binding • metal ion ...
... In eukaryotes, RNA transcription is a tightly regulated process ... of this process, targeting transcriptional activators or repressors, different components of the transcription reaction including RNA polymerase (RNAP) II and even the DNA duplex to regulate gene ... may comprise a regulatory network that, including transcription factors, finely control gene expression in complex eukaryotes ...
... Transcription factors are often classified based on the sequence similarity and hence the tertiary structure of their DNA-binding domains 1 Superclass Basic Domains 1.1 Class Leucine ...
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