Pope Pius XII

Pope Pius XII (Latin: Pius PP. XII; Italian: Pio XII), born Eugenio Marìa Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (2 March 1876 – 9 October 1958), reigned as Pope, head of the Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City State, from 2 March 1939 until his death in 1958.

Before election to the papacy, Pacelli served as secretary of the Department of Extraordinary Ecclesiastical Affairs, papal nuncio to Germany (1917–1929), and Cardinal Secretary of State, in which capacity he worked to conclude treaties with European and Latin American nations, most notably the Reichskonkordat with Nazi Germany. The concordat of 1933, with which the Vatican sought to protect the Church in Germany, and Hitler sought the destruction of 'political Catholicism', and Pius' leadership of the Catholic Church during World War II, including his "decision to stay silent in public about the fate of the Jews", remain the subject of controversy.

After the war Pius XII advocated peace and reconciliation, including lenient policies towards Axis and Axis-satellite nations. The Church experienced severe persecution and mass deportations of Catholic clergy in the Eastern Bloc. In light of the Pope's overt involvement in Italian politics – anyone who voted for a Communist candidate in the 1948 elections was threatened with automatic excommunication – Pius XII became known as a staunch opponent of the Italian Communist Party. Pius XII explicitly invoked ex cathedra papal infallibility with the dogma of the Assumption of Mary in his 1950 Apostolic constitution Munificentissimus Deus. His magisterium includes almost 1,000 addresses and radio broadcasts. His forty-one encyclicals include Mystici Corporis, the Church as the Body of Christ; Mediator Dei on liturgy reform; and Humani generis on the Church's positions on theology and evolution. He eliminated the Italian majority in the College of Cardinals in 1946.

In the process toward sainthood Pope Benedict XVI declared Pius XII Venerable in December 2009.

Read more about Pope Pius XIIEarly Life, Theology, Canonisations and Beatifications, World War II, Holocaust, Post–World War II, Cause For Canonization

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Pope Pius XII - Views, Interpretations, and Scholarship - Recent Developments
... Phayer's Pius XII, The Holocaust, and the Cold War (2008) makes use of many documents that have recently come to light due to Bill Clinton's 1997 executive order ... These documents reveal new information about Pius XII's actions regarding the Ustaše regime, the genocides in Poland, the finances of the wartime church, the deportation of the Roman Jews, and the postwar "ratlines ... According to Phayer, "the face of Pope Pius that we see in these documents is not the same face we see in the eleven volumes the Vatican published of ...
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... To the Catholic Church, Pius XII's 1950 dogma of the Assumption is proof for the resurrection of the body from the dead ... Pius was confident that the solemn proclamation and definition of the Assumption would contribute in no small way to the advantage of human society and ...
Liturgical Reforms Of Pope Pius XII
... The liturgical reforms of Pope Pius XII continued a process initiated by Pope Saint Pius X, who began the process of encouraging the faithful to a meaningful ... Pope Pius XII redefined liturgy in light of his previous encyclical Mystici Corporis and reformed several liturgical practices in light of this teaching ... The liturgical teaching of Pius XII is contained especially in his encyclical Mediator Dei of 1947 ...
Mariology Of The Popes - The 20th Century - Pius XII - Mariological Research
... Pope Pius supported or rewarded Mariological research of scholars like Gabriel Roschini, Raimondo Spiazzi, Otto Faller and Sebastian Tromp ... during the Holy Year in 1950 and in 1958 based on the actions of Pope Pius XII who authorized institutions for increased academic research into the veneration of ... teachings of Saint Louis de Montfort, who was earlier canonized by Pius XII ...
Social Teachings Of Pope Pius XII - Social Teachings - Sexuality and Conscience
... Pope Pius XII fully accepted the rhythm method as a moral form of family planning, although only limited circumstances, within the context of family ... Some Catholics interpreted the 1930 encyclical Casti Connubii by Pope Pius XI to allow moral use of the rhythm method, and internal rulings of the Catholic Church in 1853 and 1880 stated that periodic ... Some historians consider these two speeches by Pius XII to be the first explicit Church acceptance of the method ...

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