Artificial intelligence (AI) is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. AI textbooks define the field as "the study and design of intelligent agents" where an intelligent agent is a system that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chances of success. John McCarthy, who coined the term in 1955, defines it as "the science and engineering of making intelligent machines."
AI research is highly technical and specialized, deeply divided into subfields that often fail to communicate with each other. Some of the division is due to social and cultural factors: subfields have grown up around particular institutions and the work of individual researchers. AI research is also divided by several technical issues. There are subfields which are focused on the solution of specific problems, on one of several possible approaches, on the use of widely differing tools and towards the accomplishment of particular applications. The central problems of AI include such traits as reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. General intelligence (or "strong AI") is still among the field's long term goals. Currently popular approaches include statistical methods, computational intelligence and traditional symbolic AI. There are an enormous number of tools used in AI, including versions of search and mathematical optimization, logic, methods based on probability and economics, and many others.
The field was founded on the claim that a central property of humans, intelligence—the sapience of Homo sapiens—can be so precisely described that it can be simulated by a machine. This raises philosophical issues about the nature of the mind and the ethics of creating artificial beings, issues which have been addressed by myth, fiction and philosophy since antiquity. Artificial intelligence has been the subject of optimism, but has also suffered setbacks and, today, has become an essential part of the technology industry, providing the heavy lifting for many of the most difficult problems in computer science.
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... Artificial Intelligence is a common topic in both science fiction and projections about the future of technology and society ... The existence of an artificial intelligence that rivals human intelligence raises difficult ethical issues, and the potential power of the technology inspires both hopes and fears ... In fiction, Artificial Intelligence has appeared fulfilling many roles, including a servant (R2D2 in Star Wars), a law enforcer (K.I.T.T ...
... systems and has been created as a product for research and development by the Artificial Intelligence Group, Information Systems Technology Section at NASA/JPL to meet many of their demanding and rigorous AI goals ... The system may be used to develop artificial intelligence applications as well as specialized tools for research efforts ... diagnosis and other applications require a variety of software modules based on artificial intelligence concepts and advanced programming techniques ...
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... allows players to collect and apply preferences to the artificial intelligence routines of partner characters, who will perform certain actions in response to certain conditions ... of Xentar and Secret of Mana also allowed adjustable artificial intelligence to take control during combat ... In Baldur's Gate's case, players also have the option to allow the artificial intelligence to take control during combat, though they can press the spacebar at any time to regain control of their characters ...
... Turing in his 1950 paper "Computing Machinery and Intelligence," which opens with the words "I propose to consider the question, 'Can machines think?'" Universal grammar ... dependency theory – a model of natural language understanding used in artificial intelligence systems ... at Stanford University introduced the model in 1969, in the early days of artificial intelligence ...
Famous quotes containing the words intelligence and/or artificial:
“But as these angels, the only halted ones
among the many who passed and repassed,
trod air as swimmers tread water, each gazing
on the angelic wings of the other,
the intelligence proper to great angels flew into their wings,
the intelligence called intellectual love....”
—Denise Levertov (b. 1923)
“Kings are not born: they are made by artificial hallucination.”
—George Bernard Shaw (18561950)