Histone

Histone

In biology, histones are highly alkaline proteins found in eukaryotic cell nuclei that package and order the DNA into structural units called nucleosomes. They are the chief protein components of chromatin, acting as spools around which DNA winds, and play a role in gene regulation. Without histones, the unwound DNA in chromosomes would be very long (a length to width ratio of more than 10 million to one in human DNA). For example, each human cell has about 1.8 meters of DNA, but wound on the histones it has about 90 micrometers (0.09 mm) of chromatin, which, when duplicated and condensed during mitosis, result in about 120 micrometers of chromosomes.

Read more about Histone:  Classes, Structure, History, Conservation Across Species, Functions of Histone Modifications

Other articles related to "histone":

SMYD3
... Gene Ontology Molecular function • zinc ion binding • histone-lysine N-methyltransferase activity Cellular component • nucleus • cytoplasm Biological process ... SMYD3 is a histone methyltransferase that plays a role in transcriptional regulation as a member of an RNA polymerase complex ...
Charles David Allis
... In pursuit of understanding the DNA-histone protein complex and the intricate system which allows for gene activation, the Allis lab focuses on chromatin signaling via histone modifications - acetylation ... Allis was the first to mechanistically link histone acetylation to transcription activation ... In 1996, Allis and colleagues discovered that a histone acetyltransferase from Tetrahymena was the homologue of a transcriptional co-activator from yeast (GCN5) ...
SUV420H1
... GeneCards SUV420H1 Gene EC number 2.1.1.43 Gene Ontology Molecular function • histone-lysine N-methyltransferase activity • histone ...
Functions of Histone Modifications - Other Functions - DNA Damage
... Phosphorylation of Histone H2AX at Serine 139 Phosphorylated H2AX (also known as gamma H2AX) is a marker for DNA double strand breaks, and forms part of the response ... Although in general mammals make far greater use of histone modifications than microorganisms, a major role of H3K56Ac in DNA replication exists only in fungi, and this has become a target ...
SAP18 - Function
... Histone acetylation plays a key role in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression ... Histone acetylation and deacetylation are catalyzed by multisubunit complexes ... The protein encoded by this gene is a component of the histone deacetylase complex, which includes SIN3, SAP30, HDAC1, HDAC2, RbAp46, RbAp48, and other polypeptides ...