Fine Structure

In atomic physics, the fine structure describes the splitting of the spectral lines of atoms due to first order relativistic corrections.

The gross structure of line spectra is the line spectra predicted by non-relativistic electrons with no spin. For a hydrogenic atom, the gross structure energy levels only depend on the principal quantum number n. However, a more accurate model takes into account relativistic and spin effects, which break the degeneracy of the energy levels and split the spectral lines. The scale of the fine structure splitting relative to the gross structure splitting is on the order of ()2, where Z is the atomic number and α is the fine-structure constant, a dimensionless number equal to approximately 7.297×10−3.

The fine structure can be separated into three corrective terms: the kinetic energy term, the spin-orbit term, and the Darwinian term. The full Hamiltonian is given by

Read more about Fine StructureKinetic Energy Relativistic Correction, Spin-orbit Coupling, Darwin Term, Total Effect

Other articles related to "fine structure, structure, structures, fine":

Cluster Decay - Fine Structure
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Radar Signal Characteristics - The Radar Signal in The Frequency Domain
... response shows that it contains two basic structures ... The Coarse Structure (the peaks or 'lobes' in the diagram on the left) and the Fine Structure which contains the individual frequency components as shown below ... The Envelope of the lobes in the Coarse Structure is given by ...
Ralph Kronig - Scientific Achievement
... Ralph Kronig (1931, 1932), published the first theory of x-ray absorption fine structure, which contained some of the basic concepts of the modern interpretation ... over all directions in the lattice, a residual structure should be observed ... was successful in predicting many generally observed features of the fine structure, including similar structure from similar lattices, inverse r2 dependence, correct ...
Quantum Theoretical Analysis - Mathematical Summary of Eigenstates of Hydrogen Atom - Energy Levels
... The energy levels of hydrogen, including fine structure, are given by where α is the fine-structure constant and j is a number which is the total angular momentum eigenvalue that is, ℓ ± 1/2 ... The Rydberg constant is connected to the fine-structure constant by the relation This constant is often used in atomic physics in the form of the Rydberg ...

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