Science (from Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe. In an older and closely related meaning (found, for example, in Aristotle), "science" refers to the body of reliable knowledge itself, of the type that can be logically and rationally explained (see History and philosophy below). Since classical antiquity science as a type of knowledge was closely linked to philosophy. In the early modern era the words "science" and "philosophy" were sometimes used interchangeably in the English language. By the 17th century, natural philosophy (which is today called "natural science") was considered a separate branch of philosophy. However, "science" continued to be used in a broad sense denoting reliable knowledge about a topic, in the same way it is still used in modern terms such as library science or political science.
In modern use, "science" more often refers to a way of pursuing knowledge, not only the knowledge itself. It is "often treated as synonymous with 'natural and physical science', and thus restricted to those branches of study that relate to the phenomena of the material universe and their laws, sometimes with implied exclusion of pure mathematics. This is now the dominant sense in ordinary use." This narrower sense of "science" developed as scientists such as Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei and Isaac Newton began formulating laws of nature such as Newton's laws of motion. In this period it became more common to refer to natural philosophy as "natural science". Over the course of the 19th century, the word "science" became increasingly associated with the scientific method, a disciplined way to study the natural world, including physics, chemistry, geology and biology. It is in the 19th century also that the term scientist was created by the naturalist-theologian William Whewell to distinguish those who sought knowledge on nature from those who sought knowledge on other disciplines. The Oxford English Dictionary dates the origin of the word "scientist" to 1834. This sometimes left the study of human thought and society in a linguistic limbo, which was resolved by classifying these areas of academic study as social science. Similarly, several other major areas of disciplined study and knowledge exist today under the general rubric of "science", such as formal science and applied science.
Other articles related to "science":
... what would eventually become the World Academy of Art and Science in 1960 ... invited, did he attend the first Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs in 1957 ... of knowledge in a world in which the freedom of science to exchange ideas was more and more hobbled by political concerns ...
... See also Politicization of science Many issues damage the relationship of science to the media and the use of science and scientific arguments by politicians ... or think tank makes it their only goal to cast doubt on supported science because it conflicts with political agendas ...
... The National Science Board established the Vannevar Bush Award (/væˈniːvər/ van-NEE-vər) in 1980 to honor Dr ... The annual award recognizes an individual who, through public service activities in science and technology, has made an outstanding "contribution toward the welfare of mankind and ... the force behind the establishment of the National Science Foundation ...
... March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator known for his work on analog computers, for his role as an initiator and administrator of the ... of some six thousand leading American scientists in the application of science to warfare ... and public intellectual during World War II, when he was in effect the first presidential science advisor ...
Famous quotes containing the word science:
“The essence of acting is the conveyance of truth through the medium of the actors mind and person. The science of acting deals with the perfecting of that medium.”
—Minnie Maddern Fiske (18651932)
“Hard times accounted in large part for the fact that the exposition was a financial disappointment in its first year, but Sally Rand and her fan dancers accomplished what applied science had failed to do, and the exposition closed in 1934 with a net profit, which was donated to participating cultural institutions, excluding Sally Rand.”
—For the State of Illinois, U.S. public relief program (1935-1943)
“Science is built up with facts, as a house is with stones. But a collection of facts is no more a science than a heap of stones is a house.”
—Jules Henri Poincare (18541912)