The authentication of information can pose special problems (especially man-in-the-middle attacks), and is often wrapped up with authenticating identity.
Literary forgery can involve imitating the style of a famous author. If an original manuscript, typewritten text, or recording is available, then the medium itself (or its packaging — anything from a box to e-mail headers) can help prove or disprove the authenticity of the document.
However, text, audio, and video can be copied into new media, possibly leaving only the informational content itself to use in authentication.
Various systems have been invented to allow authors to provide a means for readers to reliably authenticate that a given message originated from or was relayed by them. These involve authentication factors like:
- A difficult-to-reproduce physical artifact, such as a seal, signature, watermark, special stationery, or fingerprint.
- A shared secret, such as a passphrase, in the content of the message.
- An electronic signature; public-key infrastructure is often used to cryptographically guarantee that a message has been signed by the holder of a particular private key.
The opposite problem is detection of plagiarism, where information from a different author is passed off as a person's own work. A common technique for proving plagiarism is the discovery of another copy of the same or very similar text, which has different attribution. In some cases, excessively high quality or a style mismatch may raise suspicion of plagiarism.
Read more about this topic: Authentication
Other articles related to "content, information content, information":
... allowing AOL to modify or remove such content did not make AOL the "information content provider" because the content was created by an independent contractor ... even aggressive role in making available content prepared by others." Carafano v ... The plaintiff, Carafano, claimed the false profile defamed her, but because the content was created by a third party, the website was immune, even though it had ...
... An amount of (classical) physical information may be quantified, as in information theory, as follows ... with its description, the amount of information I(S) contained in the system's state can be said to be log(N) ... since it has the advantage that this measure of information content is additive when concatenating independent, unrelated subsystems e.g ...
... In information theory, self-information is a measure of the information content associated with the outcome of a random variable ... It is expressed in a unit of information, for example bits, nats, or hartleys, depending on the base of the logarithm used in its calculation ... The term self-information is also sometimes used as a synonym of entropy, i.e ...
... The information content (IC) of a PWM is sometimes of interest, as it says something about how different a given PWM is from a uniform distribution ... The self-information of observing a particular symbol at a particular position of the motif is The expected (average) self-information of a particular element in the ... the GC-content of DNA of thermophilic bacteria range from 65.3 to 70.8, thus a motif of ATAT would contain much more information than a motif of CCGG) ...
The term information content is used to refer to the meaning of information as opposed to the form or carrier of the information. For example, the meaning that is conveyed in an expression (which may be a proposition) or document, which can be distinguished from the sounds or symbols or codes and carrier that physically form the expression or document. An information content is composed of a propositional content and an illocutionary force. See also Self-information
Famous quotes containing the words content and/or information:
“To me style is just the outside of content, and content the inside of style, like the outside and the inside of the human bodyboth go together, they cant be separated.”
—Jean-Luc Godard (b. 1930)
“Rejecting all organs of information ... but my senses, I rid myself of the Pyrrhonisms with which an indulgence in speculations hyperphysical and antiphysical so uselessly occupy and disquiet the mind.”
—Thomas Jefferson (17431826)