**Applied Torque**

Consider a mechanism such as a gear train that operates so that an input torque generates an output torque. Let body *E*_{A} have the input moment *T*_{A} applied to it, and let body *E*_{B} exert the output torque *T*_{B}. Define the angular position and velocity of *E*_{A} and *E*_{B} by θ_{A}, ω_{A} and θ_{B}, ω_{B}, respectively.

Because the mechanism has one degree-of-freedom, there is a single generalized coordinate *q* that defines the angles θ_{A}(q) and θ_{B}(q) of the input and output of the system. The principle of virtual work requires that the generalized force associated with this coordinate be zero, thus

The negative sign on the output torque T_{B} arises because the convention of virtual work assumes the torques are applied to the device.

Read more about this topic: Virtual Work, One Degree-of-freedom Mechanisms

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