A vacuum sewer system uses the differential pressure between atmospheric pressure and a partial vacuum maintained in the piping network and vacuum station collection vessel. This differential pressure allows a central vacuum station to collect the wastewater of several thousand individual homes, depending on terrain and the local situation. Vacuum sewers take advantage of available natural slope in the terrain and are most economical in flat sandy soils with high ground water.
Vacuum sewers were first installed in Europe in 1882 but until the last 30 years it had been relegated to a niche market. The first who has applied the negative pressure drainage (so called vacuum sewerage) was the Dutch engineer Charles Liernur in the second half of the 19th century. It was only used on ships, trains and airplanes for a long time. Technical implementations of vacuum sewerage systems were started after 1959 in Sweden by Joel Liljendahl and afterwards brought onto the market by Electrolux. Nowadays several system suppliers offer a wide range of products for many applications.
This section covers land based vacuum systems but the technology is also used on aircraft, ships, trains as well as in buildings. Supermarkets, prisons, marinas and many commercial buildings are using vacuum systems as well as vacuum toilets which can reduce the amount of water flushed away to less than 1 litre per flush. The NASA Space Shuttle uses vacuum toilet technology to reduce water requirements.
Other articles related to "vacuum sewer, vacuum":
... Collection chambers and vacuum valve units Monitoring system for collection chambers and vacuum valve units Vacuum sewer lines Central vacuum station ... Rotary vane vacuum pumps generate an operation pressure of -0.4 to -0.6 bar at the vacuum station, which is also the only element of the vacuum sewerage system that must be supplied with electricity ... The according energy is provided by the vacuum itself ...
Famous quotes containing the word vacuum:
“When a daughter tries suicide
and the chimney falls down like a drunk
and the dog chews her tail off
and the kitchen blows up its shiny kettle
and the vacuum cleaner swallows its bag
and the toilet washes itself in tears ...”
—Anne Sexton (19281974)