Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses. Taste is the sensation produced when a substance in the mouth reacts chemically with receptors of taste buds.
Taste, along with smell (olfaction) and trigeminal nerve stimulation (with touch for texture, also pain, and temperature), determines flavors, the sensory impressions of food or other substances.
Humans perceive taste through sensory organs called taste buds, or gustatory calyculi, concentrated on the top of the tongue. There are between 2000 and 5000 taste buds that are located on the back and front of the tongue. Others are located on the roof, sides and back of the mouth, and in the throat.
The sensation of taste can be categorized into five basic tastes: sweet, bitter, sour, salty and umami. Taste buds are able to differentiate between different tastes through detecting interaction with different molecules or ions. Sweet, umami, and bitter tastes are triggered by the binding of molecules to G protein-coupled receptors on the cell membranes of taste buds. Saltiness and sourness are perceived when alkali metal or hydrogen ions enter taste buds, respectively.
As taste senses both harmful and beneficial things, all basic tastes are classified as either aversive or appetitive, depending upon the effect the things they sense have on our bodies. Sweetness helps to identify energy-rich foods, while bitterness serves as a warning sign of poisons.
The basic tastes contribute only partially to the sensation and flavor of food in the mouth — other factors include smell, detected by the olfactory epithelium of the nose; texture, detected through a variety of mechanoreceptors, muscle nerves, etc.; temperature, detected by thermoreceptors; and "coolness" (such as of menthol) and "hotness" (pungency), through chemesthesis.
Other articles related to "taste":
... Lactarius vietus milk has a very hot taste, and the mushroom lacks a distinctive smell ... as inedible, David Pegler claims that its acrid taste can be removed after boiling, allowing it to be consumed ... Though the strong, acrid taste is a defining feature of the species, it is weaker or even absent in some older mushrooms, which is not unusual for Lactarius species ...
... The Superior Taste Award is an annual non-competitive prize open to any food or drink product available on a retail basis, subject to payment of an entry fee of Euro ... The awards have been made since 2005 by the International Taste and Quality Institute (iTQi), based in Brussels, Belgium ... of judges and scored out of 100 (first impression, appearance, smell, texture, taste and aftertaste), on their own merits, not competing against other products ...
... Her research explores the genetic variations in taste perception and how taste perception affects overall health ... condition predominantly experienced by postmenopausal women, is caused by damage to the taste buds at the front of the tongue and is not a psychosomatic condition ...
... ageusia (complete loss of taste) dysgeusia (persistent abnormal taste). ...
... ep Last Days of April (Trust No One Records, 1997) The Wedding (1998), ep Rainmaker (Bad Taste/Straight Up, 1998) Angel Youth (Bad Taste/Deep Elm, 2000) Ascend ...
Famous quotes containing the word taste:
“Personal size and mental sorrow have certainly no necessary proportions. A large bulky figure has a good a right to be in deep affliction, as the most graceful set of limbs in the world. But, fair or not fair, there are unbecoming conjunctions, which reason will pa tronize in vain,which taste cannot tolerate,which ridicule will seize.”
—Jane Austen (17751817)
“In all the important preparations of the mind she was complete; being prepared for matrimony by an hatred of home, restraint, and tranquillity; by the misery of disappointed affection, and contempt of the man she was to marry. The rest might wait. The preparations of new carriages and furniture might wait for London and the spring, when her own taste could have fairer play.”
—Jane Austen (17751817)
“The main business of religions is to purify, control, and restrain that excessive and exclusive taste for well-being which men acquire in times of equality.”
—Alexis de Tocqueville (18051859)