Stopping power is the ability of a firearm or other weapon to cause a penetrating ballistic injury to a target (human or animal) enough to incapacitate the target where it stands. This contrasts with lethality in that it pertains only to a weapon's ability to incapacitate quickly, regardless of whether death ultimately ensues. Some theories of stopping power involve concepts such as "energy transfer" and "hydrostatic shock", although there is disagreement regarding the importance of these effects.
Stopping power is related to the physical properties of the bullet and the effect it has on its target, but the issue is complicated and not easily studied. Critics contend that the importance of "one-shot stop" statistics is overstated, pointing out that most gun encounters do not involve a "shoot once and see how the target reacts" situation.
Stopping is usually caused not by the force of the bullet (especially in the case of handgun and rifle bullets), but by the damaging effects of the bullet, which are typically a loss of blood, and with it, blood pressure. More immediate effects can result when a bullet damages parts of the central nervous system, such as the spine or brain. In response to addressing stopping power issues, the Mozambique Drill was developed to maximize the likelihood of a target's quick incapacitation.
A manstopper is any combination of firearm and ammunition that can reliably incapacitate, or "stop", a human target immediately. For example, the .45 ACP pistol round and the .357 Magnum revolver round both have firm reputations as "manstoppers." Historically, one type of ammunition has had the specific tradename "Manstopper." Officially known as the Mk III cartridge, these were made to suit the British Webley .455 service revolver in the early 20th century. The ammunition used a 220-grain (14 g) cylindrical bullet with hemispherical depressions at both ends. The front acted as a hollow point deforming on impact while the base opened to seal the round in the barrel. It was introduced in 1898 for use against "savages", but fell quickly from favour due to concerns of breaching the Hague Convention's international laws on military ammunition, and was replaced in 1900 by re-issued Mk II pointed-bullet ammunition.
Some sporting arms are also referred to as "stoppers" or "stopping rifles." These powerful arms are often used by game hunters (or their guides) for stopping a suddenly charging creature, like a buffalo or an elephant.
... BGO or bismuth germanate Bismuth germanate has a higher stopping power, but a lower optical yield than NaI(Tl) ... Gd2O2S or Gadolinium oxysulfide has a high stopping power due to its relatively high density (7.32 g/cm3) and the high atomic number of gadolinium ... due to its high-Z, PbWO4 is suitable for applications where a high stopping power is required (e.g ...
... or biomedical setting, the LET (like linear stopping power) is usually expressed in units of keV/µm ... by the LET (which is here taken as synonymous with stopping power), typically expressed in units of MeV·cm²/mg of material, the units used for mass stopping power (The material in question is usually Si for MOS ...
... after passing through a given distance is referred to as the stopping power of the material and is dependent on the electron distribution ... continuously with respect to distance traversed, so that stopping power is expressed as For high energy ions stopping power is usually proportional to however, precise calculation of stopping ... Stopping power (properly, stopping force) has units of energy per unit length ...
... The stopping power depends on the type and energy of the particle and on the properties of the material it passes ... eV in dry air), the density of ionisation along the path is proportional to the stopping power of the material ... 'Stopping power' is treated as a property of the material, while 'energy loss per unit path length' describes what happens to the particle ...
Famous quotes containing the words power and/or stopping:
“... the most important effect of the suffrage is psychological. The permanent consciousness of power for effective action, the knowledge that their own thoughts have an equal chance with those of any other person ... this is what has always rendered the men of a free state so energetic, so acutely intelligent, so powerful.”
—Mary Putnam Jacobi (18421906)
“The sugar maple is remarkable for its clean ankle. The groves of these trees looked like vast forest sheds, their branches stopping short at a uniform height, four or five feet from the ground, like eaves, as if they had been trimmed by art, so that you could look under and through the whole grove with its leafy canopy, as under a tent whose curtain is raised.”
—Henry David Thoreau (18171862)