Serotype

Serotype or serovar refers to distinct variations within a species of bacteria or viruses or among immune cells of different individuals. These microorganisms, viruses, or cells are classified together based on their cell surface antigens, allowing the epidemiologic classification of organisms to the sub-species level. A group of serovars with common antigens is called a serogroup.

Serotyping often plays an essential role in determining species and subspecies. The Salmonella genus of bacteria, for example, has been determined to have over 4400 serotypes, including Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, S. enterica serovar Typhi, and S. enterica serovar Dublin. Vibrio cholerae, the species of bacteria that causes cholera, has over 200 serotypes, based on cell antigens. Only two of them have been observed to produce the potent enterotoxin that results in cholera: 0:1 and 0:139.

Serotypes were discovered by the American microbiologist Rebecca Lancefield in 1933.

Read more about Serotype:  Role in Organ Transplantation

Other articles related to "serotype, serotypes":

HLA-B53
... HLA-B53 (B53) is an HLA-B serotype ... The serotype identifies the more common HLA-B*53 gene products ... (For terminology help see HLA-serotype tutorial) ...
Bovine Enterovirus - Virology - Genetic Variability
... BEVs were originally classified into seven serotypes but are now accepted as falling into two serotypes, 1 and 2, which are further classified into subtypes ... BEV strain VG-5-27 of serotype 1, subtype 1 is the most extensively studied ... The tissue tropism of serotype 1 is extremely broad, including human, sheep, horse, dog, camel and other mammalian hosts ...
Serotype - Role in Organ Transplantation - Human Leukocyte Antigens
... Serotypes according the HLA (MHC) locus HLA Locus # of Serotypes Broad Antigens Split Antigens A 15 ... B 9 ... C* 1 ... DR 4 ... DQ 2 ... DP* *DP and many Cw require SSP-PCR for typing ...
HLA-B62
... HLA-B62 (B62) is an HLA-B serotype ... The serotype identifies certain B*15 gene-allele protein products of HLA-B ... Further information HLA-serotype tutorial B62 is largest of many split antigens of the broad antigen, B15 ...
HLA-Cw4
... HLA-Cw4 (Cw4) is a human leukocyte antigen serotype within HLA-C serotype group ... The serotype is determined by the antibody recognition of α4 subset of HLA-Cw α-chains ... Further information HLA serotypes explained Cw4 is more common in SE Europe ...