In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a partial differential equation that describes how the quantum state of some physical system changes with time. It was formulated in late 1925, and published in 1926, by the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger.
In classical mechanics, the equation of motion is Newton's second law, and equivalent formulations are the Euler–Lagrange equations and Hamilton's equations. In all these formulations, they are used to solve for the motion of a mechanical system, and mathematically predict what the system will do at any time beyond the initial settings and configuration of the system.
In quantum mechanics, the analogue of Newton's law is Schrödinger's equation for a quantum system, usually atoms, molecules, and subatomic particles; free, bound, or localized. It is not a simple algebraic equation, but (in general) a linear partial differential equation. The differential equation describes the wavefunction of the system, also called the quantum state or state vector.
In the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics, the wavefunction is the most complete description that can be given to a physical system. Solutions to Schrödinger's equation describe not only molecular, atomic, and subatomic systems, but also macroscopic systems, possibly even the whole universe.
Like Newton's Second law, the Schrödinger equation can be mathematically transformed into other formulations such as Werner Heisenberg's matrix mechanics, and Richard Feynman's path integral formulation. Also like Newton's Second law, the Schrödinger equation describes time in a way that is inconvenient for relativistic theories, a problem that is not as severe in matrix mechanics and completely absent in the path integral formulation.
Read more about Schrödinger Equation: Implications, Interpretation of The Wavefunction, Historical Background and Development, The Wave Equation For Particles, Special Cases, Solution Methods, Properties
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