Ribose is an organic compound with the formula C5H10O5; specifically, a monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C=O)−(CHOH)4−H, which has all the hydroxyl groups on the same side in the Fischer projection.

The term may refer to either of two enantiomers: it almost always refers to -ribose, which occurs widely in nature and is discussed here; or to its synthetic mirror image -ribose, which is not found in nature and is of limited interest.

-Ribose was first reported in 1891 by Emil Fischer. It is a C'-2 carbon epimer of the sugar -arabinose (both isomers of which are named for their source, gum arabic) and ribose itself is named as a transposition of the name of arabinose.

Ribose constitutes the backbone of RNA, a biopolymer that is the basis of genetic transcription. It is related to deoxyribose, as found in DNA. Once phosphorylated, ribose can become a subunit of ATP, NADH, and several other compounds that are critical to metabolism like the secondary messengers cAMP and cGMP.

Read more about RiboseStructure, Phosphorylation

Other articles related to "ribose":

Carbohydrate Acetalisation
... below depicts the acetalisation reaction of D-ribose 1 ... D-ribose in itself is a hemiacetal and in equilibrium with the pyranose 3 ... In aqueous solution ribose is 75% pyranose and 25% furanose and a different acetal 4 is formed ...
ADP-ribose Diphosphatase
... ADP-ribose diphosphatase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes a hydrolysis reaction in which water nucleophilically attacks ADP-ribose to produce AMP and D-ribose 5-phosphate ... The C-terminal domain of ADP-ribose diphosphatase contains the Nudix sequence, a highly conserved amino acid sequence that is found in over 450 putative proteins in about ... ADP-ribose hydrolases in general act as protective agents against excessive intracellular accumulation of ADP-ribose, as high intracellular levels of ADP-ribose can be damaging to the ...
Acetoin-ribose-5-phosphate Transaldolase
... In enzymology, an acetoin-ribose-5-phosphate transaldolase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction 3-hydroxybutan-2-one + D-ribose 5-phosphate acetaldehyde + 1-deoxy-D-altro-heptulose 7-phospha ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is 3-hydroxybutan-2-oneD-ribose-5-phosphate aldehydetransferase. 1-deoxy-D-altro-heptulose-7-phosphate synthase, 3-hydroxybutan-2-oneD-ribose-5-phosphate aldehydetransferase ...
Ribose - Phosphorylation
... In biology, -ribose must be phosphorylated by the cell before it can be used ... Ribokinase catalyzes this reaction by converting -ribose to -ribose 5-phosphate ... Once converted, -ribose-5-phosphate is available for the manufacturing of the amino acids tryptophan and histidine, or for use in the pentose phosphate pathway ...
S-methyl-5-thioribose Kinase
... the chemical reaction ATP + S-methyl-5-thio-D-ribose ADP + S-methyl-5-thio-alpha-D-ribose 1-phosphate Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and S-methyl ... The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATPS-methylmethyl-5-thio-D-ribose 1-phosphotransferase ... kinase, and ATPS5-methyl-5-thio-D-ribose 1-phosphotransferase ...