Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis ("porous bones", from Greek: οστούν/ostoun meaning "bone" and πόρος/poros meaning "pore") is a disease of bones that leads to an increased risk of fracture. In osteoporosis, the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture deteriorates, and the amount and variety of proteins in bone are altered. Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a bone mineral density of 2.5 standard deviations or more below the mean peak bone mass (average of young, healthy adults) as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; the term "established osteoporosis" includes the presence of a fragility fracture. The disease may be classified as primary type 1, primary type 2, or secondary. The form of osteoporosis most common in women after menopause is referred to as primary type 1 or postmenopausal osteoporosis. Primary type 2 osteoporosis or senile osteoporosis occurs after age 75 and is seen in both females and males at a ratio of 2:1. Finally, secondary osteoporosis may arise at any age and affect men and women equally. This form results from chronic predisposing medical problems or disease, or prolonged use of medications such as glucocorticoids, when the disease is called steroid- or glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

Osteoporosis risks can be reduced with lifestyle changes and sometimes medication; in people with osteoporosis, treatment may involve both. Lifestyle change includes diet and exercise, and preventing falls. Medication includes calcium, vitamin D, bisphosphonates and several others. Fall-prevention advice includes exercise to tone deambulatory muscles, proprioception-improvement exercises; equilibrium therapies may be included. Exercise with its anabolic effect, may at the same time stop or reverse osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a component of the frailty syndrome.

Read more about Osteoporosis:  Signs and Symptoms, Risk Factors, Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Prevention, Management, Prognosis, Epidemiology, History

Other articles related to "osteoporosis":

Senile Osteoporosis - Etiology
... etiologic considerations regarding senile osteoporosis are not very clear for physicians yet ... role in the pathogenetic process attached to senile osteoporosis as they enhance the action of the parathyroid hormone ... are also factors that contributes to a diagnosis of osteoporosis type II ...
Teriparatide - Uses
... Teriparatide is indicated for use in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at a high risk for fracture or with a history of osteoporotic fracture, patients with multiple risk factors for fracture, and for patients ... to increase bone mass in men with primary or hypogonadal osteoporosis at high risk of fracture, patients with multiple risk factors for fracture, and for patients who have failed or are intolerant to ... is indicated as well for the treatment of men and women with osteoporosis associated with sustained systemic glucocorticoid therapy ...
Osteoporosis - History
... goes back at least to Astley Cooper, and the term "osteoporosis" and recognition of its pathological appearance is generally attributed to the French pathologist Jean Lobstein ... The American endocrinologist Fuller Albright linked osteoporosis with the postmenopausal state ... Bisphosponates, which revolutionized the treatment of osteoporosis, were discovered in the 1960s ...
Other Lipid Hypotheses - Lipid Hypothesis of Osteoporosis
... The "lipid hypothesis of osteoporosis" postulates that lipids involved in causing heart disease also contribute to causing osteoporosis ... Osteoporosis is characterized by a decrease of bone marrow cells, or osteoblasts, and an increase of fat cells, or adipocytes ... this model suggest that LDL oxidation products can cause osteoporosis through changing the developmental fate of bone cells leading to a reduced number of osteoblasts and increased numbers of fat cells ...
Steroid-induced Osteoporosis
... Steroid-induced osteoporosis (SIOP) is osteoporosis arising due to use of glucocorticoids - analogous to Cushing's syndrome and involving mainly the ... Osteoporosis may arise after taking steroids ...