Mir-10 Micro RNA Precursor Family - Association With Cancer

Association With Cancer

Recently there has been much interest in abnormal levels of expression of microRNAs in cancers. Upregulation of miR-10 has been found in a number of cancers. Increased levels of miR-10a have been found in glioblastoma, anaplastic astrocytomas, primary hepatocellular carcinomas and colon cancer. Increased levels of miR-10b have been found in glioblastoma, anaplastic astrocytomas, pancreatic cancer, and metastatic breast cancer. Although high expression of miR-10b is found in metastatic breast cancers, it does not appear to be present at high levels in early breast cancers.

Downregulation of miR-10a has been found in chronic myeloid leukemia. USF2, a target gene of miR-10a, has been found to be overexpressed in these leukemias. Downregulation of miR-10a has also been found in acute myeloid leukemia, the most common acute leukemia affecting adults. Conversely, miR-10a and miR-10b have found to be upregulated in acute myeloid leukemia with NPM1 mutations; these account for approximately a third of adult acute myeloid leukemia cases and contain mutations in the NPM1 gene which result in the relocation of NPM1 from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Upregulation of miR-10b has also been found in B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia, the most common type of leukemia.

Genomic copy number abnormalities involving microRNA genes (both increases and decreases in copy number) have been found in cancers. A gain in copy number of the mir-10a gene has been found in melanoma and breast cancer.

Upstream of the mir-10b gene is a promoter region containing a binding site for the Twist transcription factor (Twist). Binding of Twist to this promoter region induces miR-10b expression, leading to a reduced translation of the tumour suppressor HOXD10. This results in upregulation of RhoA/RhoC, Rho kinase activation and tumour cell invasion.

Read more about this topic:  Mir-10 Micro RNA Precursor Family

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