In 1581, Guru Arjan — the youngest son of the fourth guru — became the Fifth Guru of the Sikhs. In addition to being responsible for building the Golden Temple, he prepared the Sikh Sacred text and his personal addition of some 2,000 plus hymns in the Gurū Granth Sāhib.
In 1604 he installed the Ādi Granth for the first time as the Holy Book of the Sikhs. In 1606, for refusing to make changes to the Gurū Granth Sāhib, he was tortured and killed by the Mughal rulers of the time.
Read more about this topic: History Of Sikhism
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... In 1606, Guru Arjan was implicated in the affair of Prince Khusraw, who had rebelled against his father, Jahangir ... When Mian Mir heard about it, he came to see the Guru ... He found Guru Arjan calm and serene, having completely resigned himself to the will of God ...
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... Guru Arjan Dev also visited this place at some stage ... (1506 - 1631), the venerable Sikh of the time of Guru Nanak who lived long enough to anoint five succeeding Gurus ... forest used for cattle grazing, said to have been offered to Guru Arjan by Chaudhari Langah of Patti out of his private lands ...
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“One does not become a guru by accident.”
—James Fenton (b. 1949)