Goryeo

Goryeo

The Goryeo Dynasty or Koryŏ (Hangul: 고려; Hanja: 高麗; 918–1392) was a Korean dynasty established in 918 by Emperor Taejo. This kingdom later gave name to the modern state of Korea. It united the Later Three Kingdoms in 936 and ruled most of the Korean peninsula until it was removed by the leader of the Joseon dynasty in 1392. Goryeo expanded its borders to present-day Wonsan in the north-east (936–943) and the Amnok River (993) and finally almost the whole of the Korean peninsula (1374).

Two of this period's most notable products are Goryeo celadon pottery and the Tripitaka Koreana — the Buddhist scriptures (Tripitaka) carved onto roughly 80,000 woodblocks and stored, and still in, Haeinsa. Goryeo also created the world's first metal-based movable type in 1234 and the oldest surviving movable metal type book, the Jikji, was made in 1377.

In 668, Silla conquered Baekje and Goguryeo with alliance of Tang Dynasty, but by the late 9th century it was tottering, its monarchs being unimaginative and pressed by the power of powerful statesmen. Many robbers and outlaws agitated and in 900 Gyeon Hwon revolted from Silla control in the Jeolla region as Hubaekje and next year Gung Ye revolted from the northern regions as Hugoguryeo (Taebong). A son of a regional lord, Wang Geon went into Hugoguryeo as a general.

Hugoguryeo fell when Wang Geon revolted and killed Gung Ye in 918; Silla was overpowered by Goryeo and Hubaekje and surrendered to Goryeo in 935. In 936 Hubaekje surrendered and Goryeo started an unbroken dynasty that ruled Korea for 474 years.

By the 14th century Goryeo had lost much of its power under Yuan Dynasty influences. Although King Gongmin managed to free his kingdom from the Mongol influence, the Goryeo general Yi Seonggye revolted and overthrew the last king of Goryeo, King Gongyang in 1392. Gongyang was killed in 1394.

The name "Goryeo" is derived from "Goguryeo", one of the ancient Three Kingdoms of Korea, which changed its name to "Goryeo" during the reign of King Jangsu of Goguryeo (in the 5th century). The English name "Korea" derives from "Goryeo." See also Names of Korea.

Read more about Goryeo:  Foreign Relations, Technology

Other articles related to "goryeo":

Goryeo - Technology
... type printing was invented by Choe Yun-ui in Goryeo ... Technology in Korea took a big step in Goryeo and strong relation with the Song dynasty contributed to this ... During the late Goryeo Dynasty, Goryeo was at the cutting edge of shipboard artillery ...
Little Goguryeo
... The kingdom was originally called Goryeo, but later historians added "Lesser" for disambiguation from Goguryeo, which was also often called Goryeo ... "Goryeo" is also the name of a later period of Korean history (see Goryeo), and the source of the English name Korea ...
Taihou - Korean Empress Dowager
... Empress Cheonchu (997-1009), wife and widow of Emperor Gyeongjong of Goryeo and sister of Emperor Seongjong of Goryeo, mother of Emperor Mokjong of Goryeo and daughter of Emperor Gwangjong of Goryeo ...
Horses In East Asian Warfare - Horse Warfare in National Contexts - Korea
12th century, Jurchen tribes began to violate the Goryeo-Jurchen borders, and eventually invaded Goryeo ... by the Jurchen, Korean general Yun Gwan realized that Goryeo lacked efficient cavalry units ... He reorganized the Goryeo military into a professional army that would contain decent and well-trained cavalry units ...
Byeolmuban
... Byeolmuban is the name of a special army unit in the time of Korea's Goryeo Dynasty (918–1392) ... was initiated by Yun Gwan during the reign of king Sukjong of Goryeo ... together to fight the Jurchen who were putting pressure on Goryeo's northern borders ...