Glucose

Glucose (/ˈɡluːkoʊs/ or /-koʊz/; C6H12O6, also known as -glucose, dextrose, or grape sugar) is a simple monosaccharide found in plants. It is one of the three dietary monosaccharides, along with fructose and galactose, that are absorbed directly into the bloodstream during digestion. An important carbohydrate in biology, cells use it as the primary source of energy and a metabolic intermediate. Glucose is one of the main products of photosynthesis and fuels for cellular respiration. Glucose exists in several different molecular structures, but all of these structures can be divided into two families of mirror-images (stereoisomers). Only one set of these isomers exists in nature, those derived from the "right-handed form" of glucose, denoted -glucose. -glucose is sometimes referred to as dextrose, although the use of this name is strongly discouraged. The term dextrose is derived from dextrorotatory glucose. This name is therefore confusing when applied to the enantiomer, which rotates light in the opposite direction. Starch and cellulose are polymers derived from the dehydration of -glucose. The other stereoisomer, called -glucose, is hardly ever found in nature.

The name "glucose" comes from the Greek word glukus (γλυκύς), meaning "sweet". The suffix "-ose" denotes a sugar.

Read more about Glucose:  Function, Structure and Nomenclature, Production, Sources and Absorption, History

Other articles related to "glucose":

Glucose - History
... Because glucose is a basic necessity of many organisms, a correct understanding of its chemical makeup and structure contributed greatly to a general advancement in organic chemistry ... The synthesis of glucose established the structure of organic material and consequently formed the first definitive validation of Jacobus Henricus van't ...
CDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase
... In the field of enzymology, a CDP-glucose 4,6-dehydratase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction CDP-glucose CDP-4-dehydro-6-deoxy-D-glucose + H2O Hence, this ...
Cellobiose Phosphorylase
... EC 2.4.1.20) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction cellobiose + phosphate alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate + D-glucose Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ...
Sgr S RNA
... ryaA) is a 227 nucleotide small RNA that is activated by SgrR in Escherichia coli during glucose-phosphate stress ... The nature of glucose-phosphate stress is not fully understood, but is correlated with intracellular accumulation of glucose-6-phosphate ... SgrS helps cells recover from glucose-phosphate stress by base pairing with ptsG mRNA (encoding the glucose transporter) and causing its degradation in an RNase E dependent manner ...
Sucrose Phosphorylase - Metabolic Function
... sucrose phosphorylase produces the valuable byproducts α-D-glucose-1-phosphate and fructose ... α-D-glucose-1-phosphate can be reversibly converted by phosphoglucomutase to glucose-6-phosphate (Tedokon et al ... In fact, fructose-6-phosphate and glucose-6-phosphate can be interconverted in the glycolytic pathway by phosphohexose isomerase (Nelson and Cox 2005) ...