Glucose - Sources and Absorption

Sources and Absorption

Most dietary carbohydrates contain glucose, either as their only building block, as in starch and glycogen, or together with another monosaccharide, as in sucrose and lactose.

In the lumen of the duodenum and small intestine, the glucose oligo- and polysaccharides are broken down to monosaccharides by the pancreatic and intestinal glycosidases. Other polysaccharides cannot be processed by the human intestine and require assistance by intestinal flora if they are to be broken down; the most notable exceptions are sucrose (fructose-glucose) and lactose (galactose-glucose). Glucose is then transported across the apical membrane of the enterocytes by SLC5A1, and later across their basal membrane by SLC2A2. Some of the glucose is converted to lactic acid by astrocytes, which is then utilized as an energy source by brain cells, some of the glucose is used by intestinal cells and red blood cells, while the rest reaches the liver, adipose tissue and muscle cells, where it is absorbed and stored as glycogen (under the influence of insulin). Liver cell glycogen can be converted to glucose and returned to the blood when insulin is low or absent; muscle cell glycogen is not returned to the blood because of a lack of enzymes. In fat cells, glucose is used to power reactions that synthesize some fat types and have other purposes. Glycogen is the body's "glucose energy storage" mechanism, because it is much more "space efficient" and less reactive than glucose itself.

Read more about this topic:  Glucose

Other articles related to "sources and absorption":

Maltose - Sources and Absorption
... The production of maltose is based on the hydrolysis of starch, compound by glucose units α(1→4) and α(1→6) linked, meaning that the carbon number 1 is linked by a glycosidic bond to the carbon number 4 or 6 of the other glucose ... The 1→4 linked starch part is called amylose and it is a linear polymer while the 1→4 and 1→6 linked part is the amylopectin, a branched chain polymer, being 1→6 the branching point linkages ...

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