Georgian Grammar - Adpositions

Adpositions

Georgian by and large does not have prepositions but rather postpositions. Most of the most common of these are cliticized to the ends of nouns. They might be written separately or together with the noun. There do exist a few prepositions, but they are very few in number, and tend to be calques from Russian that entered the language during the Soviet period.

Each postposition governs (requires) a specific case of the noun, akin to the usage of prepositions in German or Latin. Only one postposition governs the nominative case (-vit "like"), and there are no postpositions that govern the ergative or the vocative cases. Here are some examples of postpositions:

Postposition English meaning Case
-vit ¹ like nominative
-ze on dative
-tan at, near dative
-tan ertad together with dative
-shi ² in, to dative
-dan 4 from (a place) instrumental
-gan from (a person, a thing) genitive
gamo because of genitive
garda except genitive
gareshe without genitive
-tvis for genitive
mier by genitive
magivrad instead of genitive
miuxedavad in spite of genitive
-ts'in before, in front of genitive
-mde ³ up to, as far as adverbial

¹ The postposition -vit could also take the dative case in its elongated form (with an insertion of -a- in between the case suffix and the postposition).

² In the usage of postposition -shi the dative case suffix -s is dropped.

³ In the usage of postposition -mde the adverbial case suffix -d is dropped.

4 In the usage of postposition -dan the instrumental case suffix -t is dropped.

Read more about this topic:  Georgian Grammar

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