Friction

Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other. There are several types of friction:

  • Dry friction resists relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Dry friction is subdivided into static friction ("stiction") between non-moving surfaces, and kinetic friction between moving surfaces.
  • Fluid friction describes the friction between layers within a viscous fluid that are moving relative to each other.
  • Lubricated friction is a case of fluid friction where a fluid separates two solid surfaces.
  • Skin friction is a component of drag, the force resisting the motion of a solid body through a fluid.
  • Internal friction is the force resisting motion between the elements making up a solid material while it undergoes deformation.

When surfaces in contact move relative to each other, the friction between the two surfaces converts kinetic energy into heat. This property can have dramatic consequences, as illustrated by the use of friction created by rubbing pieces of wood together to start a fire. Kinetic energy is converted to heat whenever motion with friction occurs, for example when a viscous fluid is stirred. Another important consequence of many types of friction can be wear, which may lead to performance degradation and/or damage to components. Friction is a component of the science of tribology.

Friction is not itself a fundamental force but arises from fundamental electromagnetic forces between the charged particles constituting the two contacting surfaces. The complexity of these interactions makes the calculation of friction from first principles impossible and necessitates the use of empirical methods for analysis and the development of theory.

Read more about Friction:  History, Laws of Dry Friction, Dry Friction, Fluid Friction, Lubricated Friction, Skin Friction, Internal Friction, Energy of Friction, Instances Where Friction Is Advantageous

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Contact Dynamics - Modeling - Regularized Approach
... A regularized force law for friction writes the friction force as function of the velocity, see figure 2 ... Doing so, one can eliminate the friction force to obtain a system of ordinary differential equations ... The regularization parameter of a friction element lacks such a physical interpretation ...
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... In a viscous fluid, a boundary layer is formed ... This causes a net drag due to friction ...
Instances Where Friction Is Advantageous
... Friction between meteorite and air helps to increase its temperature and ignite it, protecting the living things on Earth ... Foot prints increase friction and helps to stand up ...

Famous quotes containing the word friction:

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    William Howard Taft (1857–1930)

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