Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive lung disease (COLD), chronic obstructive airway disease (COAD), chronic airflow limitation (CAL) and chronic obstructive respiratory disease (CORD), is the occurrence of chronic bronchitis or emphysema, a pair of commonly co-existing diseases of the lungs in which the airways narrow over time. This limits airflow to and from the lungs, causing shortness of breath (dyspnea). In clinical practice, COPD is defined by its characteristically low airflow on lung function tests. In contrast to asthma, this limitation is poorly reversible and usually gets progressively worse over time.

COPD is caused by noxious particles or gas, most commonly from tobacco smoking, which triggers an abnormal inflammatory response in the lung.

The diagnosis of COPD requires lung function tests. Important management strategies are smoking cessation, vaccinations, rehabilitation, and drug therapy (often using inhalers). Some patients go on to require long-term oxygen therapy or lung transplantation.

Worldwide, COPD ranked as the sixth leading cause of death in 1990. It is projected to become the fourth leading cause of death worldwide by 2030, due to an increase in smoking rates and demographic changes in many countries. COPD is the third leading cause of death in the U.S. and the economic burden of COPD in the U.S. in 2007 was $42.6 billion in health care costs and lost productivity.

Read more about Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary DiseaseClassification, Signs and Symptoms, Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Management, Prognosis, Epidemiology, History, Society and Culture, Research, Other Animals

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... Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), also known as chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD) or chronic airflow limitation (CAL), is a group of illnesses characterised by airflow limitation that ... term COPD includes the conditions emphysema and chronic bronchitis although most patients with COPD have characteristics of both conditions to varying degrees ... The diagnosis of COPD is established through spirometry although other pulmonary function tests can be helpful ...
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... Rank Brand Name(s) Generic Name Sales Q3 2012 Change from Q2 2012 Company(ies) Disease/Medical Use First Approval Date Patent Expiration Date 1 Nexium Esomeprazole 1 ... Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Crohn's disease, Rheumatoid arthritis Aug-1998 n/a 9 Copaxone Glatiramer 877,591 9.93% Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Sanofi-Aventis Multiple ... Mon-20XX 14 Spiriva Tiotropium 669,882 1.31% Boehringer Ingelheim Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease Apr-2002 Jul-2018 15 Januvia sitagliptin 651,299 7.50% Merck Co ...

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