Upper Ontology

In information science, an upper ontology (also known as a top-level ontology or foundation ontology) is an ontology (in the sense used in information science) which describes very general concepts that are the same across all knowledge domains. An important function of an upper ontology is to support very broad semantic interoperability between a large number of ontologies which are accessible ranking "under" this upper ontology. As the rank metaphor suggests, it is usually a hierarchy of entities and associated rules (both theorems and regulations) that attempts to describe those general entities that do not belong to a specific problem domain.

The seemingly conflicting use of metaphors implying a solid rigorous bottom-up "foundation" or a top-down imposition of somewhat arbitrary, and possibly political, decisions is no accident – the field is characterized by the usual mix of controversy, politics, competing approaches and academic rivalry. Some upper ontologies have led to commercial products, causing a financial incentive to promote one ontology over the competing systems.

Debates notwithstanding, it can be said that a very important part of each upper ontology can be considered as the computational implementation of natural philosophy, which itself is a more empirical method for investigating the topics within the philosophical discipline of physical ontology.

Library classification systems predate these upper ontology systems. Though library classifications organize and categorize knowledge using general concepts that are the same across all knowledge domains, neither system is a replacement for the other.

Read more about Upper Ontology:  Development

Other articles related to "upper ontology, ontology, upper":

Upper Ontology - Available Ontologies - PROTON
... PROTON (PROTo ONtology) is a basic subsumption hierarchy which provides coverage of most of the upper-level concepts necessary for semantic annotation, indexing ...
Upper Ontology (computer Science)
... In information science, an upper ontology (also known as a top-level ontology or foundation ontology) is an ontology (in the sense used in information science) which ... An important function of an upper ontology is to support very broad semantic interoperability between a large number of ontologies which are accessible ranking "under" this upper ontology ... Some upper ontologies have led to commercial products, causing a financial incentive to promote one ontology over the competing systems ...
Gellish Compared With OWL
... OWL (Web Ontology Language/Ontological Web Language) and Gellish are both meant for use on the semantic web ... OWL is meant to be used by computer system developers and ontology developers to create ontologies ... a grammar as well as a dictionary-taxonomy and ontology ...
Upper Ontology (computer Science) - Development
... Upper ontologies are also commercially valuable, creating competition to define them ... and ontological warfare due to competing standards", and accordingly any standard foundation ontology is likely to be contested among commercial or political parties ... No particular upper ontology has yet gained widespread acceptance as a de facto standard ...

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