Trojan War

In Greek mythology, the Trojan War was waged against the city of Troy by the Achaeans (Greeks) after Paris of Troy took Helen from her husband Menelaus king of Sparta. The war is one of the most important events in Greek mythology and has been narrated through many works of Greek literature, most notably through Homer's Iliad and the Odyssey. The Iliad relates a part of the last year of the siege of Troy; the Odyssey describes Odysseus's journey home. Other parts of the war are contained in a cycle of epic poems, which have survived through fragments. Episodes from the war provided material for Greek tragedy and other works of Greek literature, and for Roman poets including Virgil and Ovid.

The war originated from a quarrel between the goddesses Athena, Hera, and Aphrodite, after Eris, the goddess of strife and discord, gave them a golden apple, sometimes known as the Apple of Discord, marked "for the fairest". Zeus sent the goddesses to Paris, who judged that Aphrodite, as the "fairest", should receive the apple. In exchange, Aphrodite made Helen, the most beautiful of all women and wife of Menelaus, fall in love with Paris, who took her to Troy. Agamemnon, king of Mycenae and the brother of Helen's husband Menelaus, led an expedition of Achaean troops to Troy and besieged the city for ten years because of Paris' insult. After the deaths of many heroes, including the Achaeans Achilles and Ajax, and the Trojans Hector and Paris, the city fell to the ruse of the Trojan Horse. The Achaeans slaughtered the Trojans (except for some of the women and children whom they kept or sold as slaves) and desecrated the temples, thus earning the gods' wrath. Few of the Achaeans returned safely to their homes and many founded colonies in distant shores. The Romans later traced their origin to Aeneas, one of the Trojans, who was said to have led the surviving Trojans to modern-day Italy.

The ancient Greeks thought that the Trojan War was a historical event that had taken place in the 13th or 12th century BC, and believed that Troy was located in modern-day Turkey near the Dardanelles. By modern times, both the war and the city were widely believed to be non-historical. In 1868, however, the German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann met Frank Calvert, who convinced Schliemann that Troy was at Hissarlik and Schliemann took over Calvert's excavations on property belonging to Calvert; this claim is now accepted by most scholars. Whether there is any historical reality behind the Trojan War is an open question. Many scholars believe that there is a historical core to the tale, though this may simply mean that the Homeric stories are a fusion of various tales of sieges and expeditions by Mycenaean Greeks during the Bronze Age. Those who believe that the stories of the Trojan War are derived from a specific historical conflict usually date it to the 12th or 11th centuries BC, often preferring the dates given by Eratosthenes, 1194–1184 BC, which roughly corresponds with archaeological evidence of a catastrophic burning of Troy VIIa.

Read more about Trojan WarSources, Legend, Dates of The Trojan War, Historical Basis, Popular Culture

Other articles related to "trojan war, war, trojan":

Trojan War In Popular Culture - Literature - Medieval
... a tragic love story set during the war, derived from the above works ... In reality the Trojan War is little known except via Homer, and had little or no effect on the history of the Middle East (but Troy and Ilion are mentioned in passing in Hittite ... treated Homer and the Aeneid as true records and the Trojan War as the great epoch-dividing battle of the age with widespread effects across Europe ...
List Of Etruscan Mythological Figures - E
... Ecapa The tragic heroine of the Trojan War, Hecuba ... Ectur Hero of the Trojan War, Hector ... Elinei, Elinai, Elina The character Helen of Trojan War fame ...
Trojan War In Popular Culture - Literature - Modern
... The Trojan War Will Not Take Place, play by Jean Giraudoux, written in 1935 ... The Greek Generals Talk (1986) and The Trojan Generals Talk collections of short stories by Phillip Parotti ... Women of Destiny A Story of the Trojan War by Clemence McLaren published in 1996 ...
Trojan War - Popular Culture
... A full listing of works inspired by the Trojan War has not been attempted, since the inspiration provided by these events produced so many works that a list that merely mentions them by name would be larger ... Films based on the Trojan War include Troy (2004) ... The war has also been featured in many books, television series, and other creative works ...
List Of Etruscan Names For Greek Heroes
... Legendary hero of the Trojan War ... Confused with his brother, Epeios, who built the Trojan horse ... The hero of Trojan War fame ...

Famous quotes containing the words war and/or trojan:

    [Veterans] feel disappointed, not about the 1914-1918 war but about this war. They liked that war, it was a nice war, a real war a regular war, a commenced war and an ended war. It was a war, and veterans like a war to be a war. They do.
    Gertrude Stein (1874–1946)

    Motherhood is the strangest thing, it can be like being one’s own Trojan horse.
    Rebecca West (1892–1983)