Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass. In conventional use, this also includes deviation of reflected radiation from the angle predicted by the law of reflection. Reflections that undergo scattering are often called diffuse reflections and unscattered reflections are called specular (mirror-like) reflections
The types of non-uniformities which can cause scattering, sometimes known as scatterers or scattering centers, are too numerous to list, but a small sample includes particles, bubbles, droplets, density fluctuations in fluids, crystallites in polycrystalline solids, defects in monocrystalline solids, surface roughness, cells in organisms, and textile fibers in clothing. The effects of such features on the path of almost any type of propagating wave or moving particle can be described in the framework of scattering theory.
Some areas where scattering and scattering theory are significant include radar sensing, medical ultrasound, semiconductor wafer inspection, polymerization process monitoring, acoustic tiling, free-space communications, and computer-generated imagery.
Other articles related to "scattering":
... and most commonly encountered forms of radiation that undergo scattering ... Scattering of light and radio waves (especially in radar) is particularly important ... Several different aspects of electromagnetic scattering are distinct enough to have conventional names ...
... Surface roughness scattering or interface roughness scattering is the elastic scattering of a charged particle by an imperfect interface between two different materials ...
... Low-angle laser light scattering or LALLS is an application of light scattering that is particularly useful in conjunction with the technique of Size ... as a function time) and through a laser scattering cell ... The low-angle light scattering data can be analyzed if one assumes that the low-angle data is the same as the scattering at zero angle ...
... In X-ray crystallography, anomalous scattering refers to a change in a diffracting X-ray’s phase that is unique from the rest of the atoms in a crystal ... found in proteins such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen do not contribute to anomalous scattering at normal X-ray wavelengths used for X-ray crystallography ... Thus, in order to observe anomalous scattering, a heavy atom must be native to the protein or a heavy atom derivative should be made ...
... Further information Neutron scattering, X-ray scattering techniques and Neutron reflectometry Both X-rays and high-energy neutrons are used to probe the ... This is one of the reasons that x-ray scattering was the technique first used to systematically study inter-bilayer spacing ... X-ray scattering can also yield information on the average spacing between individual lipid molecules, which has led to its use in characterizing phase transitions ...
Famous quotes containing the word scattering:
“Or of the garden where we first mislaid
Simplicity of wish and will, forgetting
Out of what cognate splendor all things came
To take their scattering names;”
—Richard Wilbur (b. 1921)
“What was he doing, the great god Pan,
Down in the reeds by the river?
Spreading ruin and scattering ban,
Splashing and paddling with hoofs of a goat,
And breaking the golden lilies afloat
With the dragon-fly on the river.”
—Elizabeth Barrett Browning (18061861)
“A committee is organic rather than mechanical in its nature: it is not a structure but a plant. It takes root and grows, it flowers, wilts, and dies, scattering the seed from which other committees will bloom in their turn.”
—C. Northcote Parkinson (19091993)