Sahara - Overview


The Sahara's boundaries are the Atlantic Ocean on the west, the Atlas Mountains and the Mediterranean on the north, the Red Sea on the east, and the Sudan (region) and the valley of the Niger River on the south. The Sahara is divided into western Sahara, the central Ahaggar Mountains, the Tibesti Mountains, the Aïr Mountains (a region of desert mountains and high plateaus), Ténéré desert and the Libyan Desert (the most arid region). The highest peak in the Sahara is Emi Koussi (3,415 m/11,204 ft) in the Tibesti Mountains in northern Chad.

The Sahara is the largest desert on the African continent. The southern border of the Sahara is marked by a band of semiarid savanna called the Sahel; south of the Sahel lies Southern Sudan and the Congo River Basin. Most of the Sahara consists of rocky hamada; ergs (large areas covered with sand dunes) form only a minor part.

People lived on the edge of the desert thousands of years ago since the last ice age. The Sahara was then a much wetter place than it is today. Over 30,000 petroglyphs of river animals such as crocodiles survive, with half found in the Tassili n'Ajjer in southeast Algeria. Fossils of dinosaurs, including Afrovenator, Jobaria and Ouranosaurus, have also been found here. The modern Sahara, though, is not lush in vegetation, except in the Nile Valley, at a few oases, and in the northern highlands, where Mediterranean plants such as the olive tree are found to grow. The region has been this way since about 1600 BCE, after shifts in the Earth's axis increased temperatures and decreased precipitation. Then, due to a climate change, the savannah changed into the sandy desert as we know it now.

Dominant ethnicities in the Sahara are various Berber groups including Tuareg tribes, various Arabized Berber groups such as the Hassaniya-speaking Maure (Moors, also known as Sahrawis), including Toubou, Nubians, Zaghawa, Kanuri, Hausa, Songhai, and Fula/Fulani (French: Peul; Fula: Fulɓe). Important cities located in the Sahara include Nouakchott, the capital of Mauritania; Tamanrasset, Ouargla, Béchar, Hassi Messaoud, Ghardaïa, and El Oued in Algeria; Timbuktu in Mali; Agadez in Niger; Ghat in Libya; and Faya-Largeau in Chad.

Read more about this topic:  Sahara

Other articles related to "overview":

International Union Of Pure And Applied Chemistry - Publications - Series of Books On Analytical and Physical Chemistry of Environmental Systems
... in Environmental Systems is meant to give an overview of a technique based on fractal geometry and the processes of environmental systems ... It also gives an overview of the knowledge needed to solve environmental problems ... The book gives an overview of chemical mechanisms, transport, kinetics, and interactions that occur in environmental systems ...
United States Presidential Election, 1992 - Nominations - Democratic Party Nomination - Overview
... U.S ... Senator Tom Harkin (Iowa) ran as a populist liberal with labor union support ...
Golden Brown - Overview
... The single was a hit around the world, scaling the Top 10 as far away as Australia ... Its commercial success was probably the single factor that secured The Stranglers their continuing life in pop mainstream for the remainder of the 1980s ...
Kewanee, Illinois - Schools - Overview
... There are also other schools in Kewanee like Visitation Catholic School home of the Giants, and a community college, Black Hawk College ... Black Hawk College-East Campus is recognized nationally for its equestrian program, as well as livestock judging teams ...
Unified Modeling Language - Topics - Diagrams Overview - Interaction Diagrams
... Interaction overview diagram provides an overview in which the nodes represent communication diagrams ... Communication diagram Interaction overview diagram Sequence diagram The Protocol State Machine is a sub-variant of the State Machine ...