Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a ubiquitous family of large biological molecules that performs multiple vital roles in the coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes. Together with DNA, RNA comprises the nucleic acids, which, along with proteins, constitute the three major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life. Like DNA, RNA is assembled as a chain of nucleotides, but is usually single-stranded. Cellular organisms use messenger RNA (mRNA) to convey genetic information (recorded using the letters G, A, U, and C for the nucleotides guanine, adenine, uracil and cytosine) that directs synthesis of specific proteins, while many viruses encode their genetic information using an RNA genome.

Some RNA molecules play an active role within cells by catalyzing biological reactions, controlling gene expression, or sensing and communicating responses to cellular signals. One of these active processes is protein synthesis, a universal function whereby mRNA molecules direct the assembly of proteins on ribosomes. This process uses transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules to deliver amino acids to the ribosome, where ribosomal RNA (rRNA) links amino acids together to form proteins.

The chemical structure of RNA is very similar to that of DNA, with two differences: (a) RNA contains the sugar ribose, while DNA contains the slightly different sugar deoxyribose (a type of ribose that lacks one oxygen atom), and (b) RNA has the nucleobase uracil while DNA contains thymine. Unlike DNA, most RNA molecules are single-stranded and can adopt very complex three-dimensional structures.

Read more about RNA:  Comparison With DNA, Structure, Synthesis, Key Discoveries in RNA Biology

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Rsm Y RNA Family - See Also
... CsrB/RsmB RNA family CsrC RNA family PrrB/RsmZ RNA family RsmX. ...
... The RyeB RNA is a non-coding RNA that was identified in a large scale screen of E ... The exact 5' and 3' ends of this RNA are uncertain ... This RNA overlaps the SraC/RyeA RNA on the opposite strand suggesting that the two may act in a concerted manner ...
Key Discoveries in RNA Biology
... Further information History of RNA biology Research on RNA has led to many important biological discoveries and numerous Nobel Prizes ... The role of RNA in protein synthesis was suspected already in 1939 ... Kornberg) after he discovered an enzyme that can synthesize RNA in the laboratory ...
Retron Msr RNA
... Retron msr RNA is a non-coding RNA produced by retron elements ... The retron msr RNA folds into a characteristic secondary structure that contains a conserved guanosine residue at the end of a stem loop ... reverse transcriptase (RT) results in a DNA-RNA chimera which is composed of small single-stranded DNA linked to small single-stranded RNA ...