Mutation Rate

In genetics, the mutation rate is a measure of the rate at which various types of mutations occur during some unit of time. Mutation rates are typically given for a specific class of mutation, for instance point mutations, small or large scale insertions or deletions. The rate of substitutions can be further subdivided into a mutation spectrum which describes the influence of genetic context on the mutation rate.

There are several natural units of time for each of these rates, with rates being characterized either as mutations per base pair per cell division, per gene per generation, or per genome per generation. The mutation rate of an organism is an evolved characteristic and is strongly influenced by the genetics of each organism, in addition to strong influence from the environment. The upper and lower limits to which mutation rates can evolve is the subject of ongoing investigation.

Read more about Mutation RateBackground, Variation in Mutation Rates, Mutational Spectrum, Evolution

Other articles related to "mutation rate, mutations, mutation rates, rate, rates":

Population Genetics - The Four Processes - Mutation - Evolution of Mutation Rate
... Due to the damaging effects that mutations can have on cells, organisms have evolved mechanisms such as DNA repair to remove mutations ... Therefore, the optimal mutation rate for a species is a trade-off between costs of a high mutation rate, such as deleterious mutations, and the metabolic ... Viruses that use RNA as their genetic material have rapid mutation rates, which can be an advantage since these viruses will evolve constantly and rapidly, and thus evade the defensive responses of e.g ...
Contemporary Indo-Aryan Peoples - Genetic Anthropology
... be underestimates due to the molecular characteristics of the markers commonly used, such as their mutation rate and the range of potential alleles that STR can ... is based on the "evolutionarily effective" mutation rate for Y-chromosomal STR loci, a method which has been severely criticized by Balanovsky et al ... who compare both the accuracy and reliability of the Zhivotovsky evolutionary mutation rate (6.9 x 10-4 per locus per generation) with a genealogical rate (2.1 x 10-3 per ...
Moran Process - Rate of Evolution
... a single mutant A will take over the whole population with the probability If the mutation rate (to go from the B to the A allele) in the population is u then the rate with which one member of ... the fixation probability is just 1/N) then the rate with which an allele arises and takes over a population is independent of the population size and is equal to the mutation rate ... the basis of the neutral theory of evolution and suggests that the number of observed point mutations in the genomes of two different species would simply be given by the mutation rate multiplied by two times ...
Microevolution - The Four Processes - Mutation
... Mutations are changes in the DNA sequence of a cell's genome and are caused by radiation, viruses, transposons and mutagenic chemicals, as well as errors that occur during ... These errors, called mutations, can have an impact on the phenotype of an organism, especially if they occur within the protein coding sequence of a gene ... Error rates are usually very low—1 error in every 10–100 million bases—due to the "proofreading" ability of DNA polymerases ...
Mutation Rate - Evolution
... There are three theories on what determines the evolution of mutation rate ... The optimal mutation rate of organisms may be determined by a trade-off between costs of a high mutation rate, such as deleterious mutations, and the ... Additionally, higher mutation rates increase the rate of beneficial mutations, and evolution may prevent a lowering of the mutation rate in order to ...

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