Peroxide

A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen–oxygen single bond or the peroxide anion (2–). The O−O group is called the peroxide group or peroxo group. In contrast to oxide ions, the oxygen atoms in the peroxide ion have an oxidation state of −1.

The simplest stable peroxide is hydrogen peroxide. Superoxides, dioxygenyls, ozones and ozonides compound are considered separately. Peroxide compounds can be roughly classified into organic and inorganic. Whereas the inorganic peroxides have an ionic, salt-like character, the organic peroxides are dominated by the covalent bonds. The oxygen-oxygen chemical bond of peroxide is unstable and easily split into reactive radicals via homolytic cleavage. For this reason, peroxides are found in nature only in small quantities, in water, atmosphere, plants, and animals.

Peroxides have a bleaching effect on organic substances and therefore are added to some detergents and hair colorants. Other large-scale applications include medicine and chemical industry, where peroxides are used in various synthesis reactions or occur as intermediate products. With an annual production of over 2 million tonnes, hydrogen peroxide is the most economically important peroxide. Many peroxides are unstable and hazardous substances; they cannot be stored and therefore are synthesized in situ and used immediately.

Read more about Peroxide:  History, Bonding, Inorganic Peroxides, Organic Peroxides, Laboratory Identification, Safety

Other articles related to "peroxide, peroxides":

Peroxide - Safety
... Organic peroxides can accidentally initiate explosive polymerization in materials with unsaturated chemical bonds ... of phenol, where the second product of the cumene process, acetone, is partially oxidized to peroxide on the second reaction step ... Accidental preparation of organic peroxides can occur by mixing ketone solvents (most commonly acetone) with waste materials containing hydrogen peroxide or other oxidizers and leaving the mixture standing ...
Lactoperoxidase - Function
... Lactoperoxidase catalyzes the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation of several acceptor molecules reduced acceptor + H2O2 → oxidized acceptor + H2O Specific examples include thiocyanate (SCN ... effect of lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide mixtures on bacteria is dependent on experimental conditions ... the exposure to lactoperoxidase-thiocyanate-hydrogen peroxide on nutrient agar under aerobic conditions, they may not grow, whereas they grow readily on ...
Peroxide Value
... Detection of Peroxide gives the initial evidence of rancidity in unsaturated fats and oils ... Other methods are available but peroxide value is the most widely used ... best test for autoxidation (oxidative rancidity) is determination of the peroxide value ...
Strontium Peroxide
... Strontium peroxide (SrO2) is a whitish inorganic compound, a peroxide of strontium. ...
Bristol Siddeley Gamma - Advantages of Kerosene / Peroxide Engines
... Use of kerosene / hydrogen peroxide engines has been a particularly British trait in rocket development, there being few comparable engines (such as the LR-40) from the USA ... The combustion of kerosene with hydrogen peroxide is given by the formula CH2 + 3H2O2 → CO2 + 4H2O where CH2 is the approximate formula of kerosene (see RP-1 for a discussion of kerosene rocket fuels) ... → CO2 + H2O showing that the exhaust from kerosene / peroxide is predominantly water ...