North American English regional phonology is the study of variations in the pronunciation of spoken English by the inhabitants of various parts of North America (United States and Canada). North American English can be divided into several regional dialects based on phonological, phonetic, lexical, and some syntactic features. North American English includes American English, which has several highly developed and distinct regional varieties, along with the closely related Canadian English, which is more homogeneous. American English (especially Western dialects) and Canadian English have more in common with each other than with the many varieties of English outside North America.
The most recent work documenting and studying the phonology of North American English dialects as a whole is the Atlas of North American English by William Labov, Sharon Ash, and Charles Boberg, on which much of the description below is based, following on a tradition of sociolinguistics dating to the 1960s; earlier large-scale American dialectology focused more on lexical variation than on phonology.
Read more about North American English Regional Phonology: Defining Regions of North American Speech, General American, The Midland, The North, Northeastern Dialects, Southern American English, Western Dialect, Canadian English
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... change known as the Canadian Shift, mainly found in Ontario, English-speaking Montreal and further west, and led by Ontarians and women it involves the front lax vowels ... Indeed, /æ/ is lower in this variety than almost all other North American dialects the retraction of /æ/ was independently observed in Vancouver and is more advanced for Ontarians and women than for people from the ...
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