Names and Titles
Āḥmed (احمد) - Ḥāmed (حامد) - Maḥmūd (محمود) - Qāsim (قاسم) - ʻāqib (عاقب) - Fātaḥ (فاتح) - Šāhid (شاھد) - Ḥāšir (حاشر) - Rašīd (رشيد) - Mašhūd (مشھود) - Bašīr (بشير) - Naḏīr (نذير) - Dāʻun (داع) - Šāfun (شاف) - Hādun (ھاد) - Mahdub (مھد) - Māḥun (ماح) - Munǧun (منج) - Nāhun (ناه) - Rasūl (رسول) - Nabī (نبى) - Um'mī (امى) - Tehāmī (تھامى) - Hāšmī (ھاشمى) - Ābṭḥīun (ابطحى) - ʻḏīḏ (عذيذ) - Ḥarīṣun ʻlīkum
(حريص عليكم) - Rʻūf (رءؤف) - Raḥīm (رحيم) - Ṭāʾ hāʾ (طه) - Muǧtabā (مجتبى) - Ṭāʾ sīn (طس) - Murtaḍā (مرتضى) - Ḥāʾ mīm (حم) - Muṣṭfā (مصطفى) - Yāʾ sīn (يس) - Āūlā (اولى) - Muzamil (مزمل) - Ūlīun (ولى) - Mudaṯir (مدثر) - Matīn (متين) - Muṣadiq (مصدق) - Ṭaīab (طيب) - Nāṣir (ناصر) - Manṣūr (منصور) - Miṣbāḥ (مصباح) - Āmirun (امر) - Ḥaǧāzyun (حجازى) - Nazaryun (نزارى) - Qaršiyun (قرشى) - Muḍariyun (مضرى) - Nabī Ātaūbati (نبى اتوبة) - Ḥāfiẓun (حافظ) - Kāmilun (كامل) - Ṣādaiq (صادق) - Āmīn (امين) - ʻabd ullāh (عبد الله) - Kālīm ullāh (كليم الله) - Ḥabīb ullāh (حبيب الله) - Naǧī ullāh (نجى الله) - Ṣafi ullāh (صفى الله) - Ḵātam Ul-Ānbīāʼ (خاتم الانبياء) - Ḥasībun (حسيب) - Muǧībun (مجيب) - Šakūr (شكور) - Muktaṣidun (مقتصد) - Rasūl ul-Reḥamiti (رسول الرحمۃ) - Qaūiun (قوى) - Ḥafīun (حفى) - Māmūn (مامون) - Maʻlūm (معلوم) - Ḥaqq (حق) - Mubaīn (مبين) - Muṭaīʻun (مطيع) - Rasūl ul-Ūāḥati (رسول الواحۃ) - Āūl (اول) - Āḵir (اخر) - Ẓāhir (ظاھر) - Bāṯin (باطن) - Nanī ul-Reḥamati (نبى الرحمة) - Īatīm (يتيم) - Karīm (كريم) - Ḥakīm (حكيم) - Ḵātim ul-Rasūl (خاتم الرسول) - Saīadun (سيد) - Sirāǧ (سراج) - Munaīr (منير) - Muḥaramun (محرم) - Mukaram (مكرم) - Mubašhir (مبشر) - Muzakirun (مزكر) - Muṭharun (مطھر) - kharīb (قريب) - Ḵalīl (خليل) - Madʻū (مدعو) - Ğūād (جواد) - Ḵātim (خاتم) - ʻādil (عادل) - Šahīrun (شھير) - Šahīdun (شھيد) - Rasūl ul-Malaḥmi (رسول الملاحم) -
Life in Mecca - Hijra - Life in Medina Conquest of Mecca - The Farewell Pilgrimage
Quran - Hadith - Early Reforms Under Islam - Diplomacy - Military - Persecution by Meccans - Migration to Abyssinia
Isra and Mi'raj - Splitting of the Moon - Relics - Al-Masjid an-Nabawi
Jews - Christians - Slavery
Farewell sermon - Hadith (Pen and Paper) - Saqifah - Ahl al-Bayt - Companions - History
Durood-e-Ibrahimi - Durood-e-Tunajjina
Islamic - Jewish - Bible - Medieval Christian - Historicity - Criticism
Na'at - Mīlād
Abū al-Qāsim Muḥammad ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn ʿAbd al-Muṭṭalib ibn Hāshim (Arabic: محمد بن عبد الله بن عبد المطلب ) (c. 570 – c. 8 June 632); also transliterated as Muhammad (Arabic: محمد), was a religious, political, and military leader from Mecca who unified Arabia into a single religious polity under Islam. He is believed by Muslims and Bahá'ís to be a messenger and prophet of God and, by most Muslims, the last prophet sent by God for mankind. Non-Muslims regard Muhammad as the founder of Islam. Muslims consider him to be the restorer of an unaltered original monotheistic faith of Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets.
Born in about 570 CE in the Arabian city of Mecca, he was orphaned at an early age and brought up under the care of his uncle Abu Talib. He later worked mostly as a merchant, as well as a shepherd, and was first married by age 25. Being in the habit of periodically retreating to a cave in the surrounding mountains for several nights of seclusion and prayer, he later reported that it was there, at age 40, that he received his first revelation from God. Three years after this event Muhammad started preaching these revelations publicly, proclaiming that "God is One", that complete "surrender" to Him (lit. islām) is the only way (dīn) acceptable to God, and that he himself was a prophet and messenger of God, in the same vein as other Islamic prophets.
Muhammad gained few followers early on, and was met with hostility from some Meccan tribes; he and his followers were treated harshly. To escape persecution, Muhammad sent some of his followers to Abyssinia before he and his followers in Mecca migrated to Medina (then known as Yathrib) in the year 622. This event, the Hijra, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar, which is also known as the Hijri Calendar. In Medina, Muhammad united the tribes under the Constitution of Medina. After eight years of fighting with the Meccan tribes, his followers, who by then had grown to 10,000, in a largely peaceful conquest gained control of Mecca where he destroyed the pagan idols in the city and then sent his followers out to destroy all of the remaining pagan temples throughout Eastern Arabia. In 632, a few months after returning to Medina from The Farewell Pilgrimage, Muhammad fell ill and died. By the time of his death, most of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to Islam, and he had united Arabia into a single Muslim religious polity.
The revelations (or Ayah, lit. "Signs ")—which Muhammad reported receiving until his death—form the verses of the Quran, regarded by Muslims as the “Word of God” and around which the religion is based. Besides the Quran, Muhammad’s life (sira) and traditions (sunnah) are also upheld by Muslims as the sources of sharia law. They discuss Muhammad and other prophets of Islam with reverence, adding the phrase peace be upon him whenever their names are mentioned. While conceptions of Muhammad in medieval Christendom and premodern times were largely negative, appraisals in modern history have been far less so.
Read more about Muhammad: Names and Appellations in The Quran, Pre-Islamic Arabia, Early Reforms Under Islam, Appearance, Household
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