The glyoxylate cycle, a variation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, is an anabolic pathway occurring in plants, bacteria, protists, and fungi. The glyoxylate cycle centers on the conversion of acetyl-CoA to succinate for the synthesis of carbohydrates. In microorganisms, the glyoxylate cycle allows cells to utilize simple carbon compounds as a carbon source when complex sources such as glucose are not available. The cycle is generally assumed to be absent in animals, with the exception of nematodes at the early stages of embryogenesis. In recent years, however, the detection of malate synthase (MS) and isocitrate lyase (ICL), key enzymes involved in the gyloxylate cycle, in some animal tissue has raised questions regarding the evolutionary relationship of enzymes in bacteria and animals and suggests that animals encode alternative enzymes of the cycle that differ in function from known MS and ICL in non-metazoan species.
Other articles related to "glyoxylate cycle, cycle":
... The glyoxylate cycle is one of the pathways which engineers have attempted to manipulate into mammalian cells ... the large stores of acetate in cells could be used in order to synthesize glucose through the cycle, allowing for increased production of wool ... of two enzymes, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, which are needed in order for the cycle to take place ...
... By diverting isocitrate from the TCA cycle, the actions of ICL and malate synthase in the glyoxylate cycle result in the net assimilation of carbon from 2-carbon compounds ... Thus, while the TCA cycle yields no net carbon assimilation, the glyoxylate cycle generates intermediates that can be used to synthesize glucose (via gluconeogenesis), and other ... This serves as a substrate for the glyoxylate cycle, which generates other cyclic intermediates and serves as a primary nutrient source prior to the production of sugars from photosynthesis ...
... Other glucogenic amino acid as well as all citric acid cycle intermediates, the latter through conversion to oxaloacetate, can also function as substrates for gluconeogenesis ... is transported back to the liver where it is converted into pyruvate by the Cori cycle using the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase ... of amino acids facilitates entering of their carbon skeleton into the cycle directly (as pyruvate or oxaloacetate), or indirectly via the citric acid cycle ...
Famous quotes containing the word cycle:
“Oh, life is a glorious cycle of song,
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—Dorothy Parker (18931967)