Fuel Injection - Supersession of Carburetors

Supersession of Carburetors

In the 1970s and 1980s in the US, the federal government imposed increasingly strict exhaust emission regulations. During that time period, the vast majority of gasoline-fueled automobile and light truck engines did not use fuel injection. To comply with the new regulations, automobile manufacturers often made extensive and complex modifications to the engine carburetor(s). While a simple carburetor system is cheaper to manufacture than a fuel injection systems, the more complex carburetor systems installed on many engines in the 1970s were much more costly than the earlier simple carburetors. To more easily comply with emissions regulations, automobile manufacturers began installing fuel injection systems in more gasoline engines during the late 1970s.

The open loop fuel injection systems had already improved cylinder-to-cylinder fuel distribution and engine operation over a wide temperature range, but did not offer further scope to sufficient control fuel/air mixtures, in order to further reduce exhaust emissions. Later Closed loop fuel injection systems improved the air/fuel mixture control with an exhaust gas oxygen sensor and began incorporating a catalytic converter to further reduce exhaust emissions.

Fuel injection was phased in through the latter '70s and '80s at an accelerating rate, with the US, French and German markets leading and the UK and Commonwealth markets lagging somewhat. Since the early 1990s, almost all gasoline passenger cars sold in first world markets are equipped with electronic fuel injection (EFI). The carburetor remains in use in developing countries where vehicle emissions are unregulated and diagnostic and repair infrastructure is sparse. Fuel injection is gradually replacing carburetors in these nations too as they adopt emission regulations conceptually similar to those in force in Europe, Japan, Australia and North America.

Many motorcycles still utilize carburetored engines, though all current high-performance designs have switched to EFI.|date=April 2012}}

NASCAR finally replaced carburetors with fuel-injection, starting at the beginning of the 2012 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series season.

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