Covalent Bond

A covalent bond is the chemical bond that involves the sharing of pairs of electrons between atoms. The stable balance of attractive and repulsive forces between atoms when they share electrons is known as covalent bonding. For many molecules, the sharing of electrons allows each atom to attain the equivalent of a full outer shell, corresponding to a stable electronic configuration.

Covalent bonding includes many kinds of interaction, including σ-bonding, π-bonding, metal-to-metal bonding, agostic interactions, and three-center two-electron bonds. The term covalent bond dates from 1939. The prefix co- means jointly, associated in action, partnered to a lesser degree, etc.; thus a "co-valent bond", in essence, means that the atoms share "valence", such as is discussed in valence bond theory. In the molecule H2, the hydrogen atoms share the two electrons via covalent bonding. Covalency is greatest between atoms of similar electronegativities. Thus, covalent bonding does not necessarily require the two atoms be of the same elements, only that they be of comparable electronegativity. Although covalent bonding entails sharing of electrons, it is not necessarily delocalized.

Read more about Covalent Bond:  History, Physical Properties of Covalent Compounds (polar and Non-polar), Polarity of Covalent Bonds, Subdivision of Covalent Bonds

Other articles related to "covalent bond, bonds, bond, covalent":

Methods of Calculation - Pauling Electronegativity
... in 1932 as an explanation of the fact that the covalent bond between two different atoms (A–B) is stronger than would be expected by taking the average of the strengths of the A–A and B–B bonds ... According to valence bond theory, of which Pauling was a notable proponent, this "additional stabilization" of the heteronuclear bond is due to the contribution of ionic canonical forms to the bonding ... A and B is given by where the dissociation energies, Ed, of the A–B, A–A and B–B bonds are expressed in electronvolts, the factor (eV)–½ being included to ensure a ...
Types of Intramolecular Force
... Electrons in an ionic bond tend to mostly be found around one of the two constituent atoms this is often described as one atom giving electrons to the other ... Covalent, which generally form between two nonmetals ... Electrons in a covalent bond are essentially shared between the constituent atoms ...
Enzyme Catalysis - Mechanisms of Transition State Stabilization - Covalent Catalysis
... Covalent catalysis involves the substrate forming a transient covalent bond with residues in the active site or with a cofactor ... This adds an additional covalent intermediate to the reaction, and helps to reduce the energy of later transition states of the reaction ... The covalent bond must, at a later stage in the reaction, be broken to regenerate the enzyme ...
Subdivision of Covalent Bonds
... There are three types of covalent substances individual molecules, molecular structures, and macromolecular structures ... Individual molecules have strong bonds that hold the atoms together, but there are negligible forces of attraction between molecules ... Such covalent substances are gases ...

Famous quotes containing the word bond:

    Man’s characteristic privilege is that the bond he accepts is not physical but moral; that is, social. He is governed not by a material environment brutally imposed on him, but by a conscience superior to his own, the superiority of which he feels. Because the greater, better part of his existence transcends the body, he escapes the body’s yoke, but is subject to that of society.
    Emile Durkheim (1858–1917)