The British Raj (rāj, lit. "reign" in Hindi) was British rule in the Indian subcontinent between 1858 and 1947. The term can also refer to the period of dominion. The region under British control, commonly called India in contemporary usage, included areas directly administered by the United Kingdom (contemporaneously British India), as well as the princely states ruled by individual rulers under the paramountcy of the British Crown. The region was less commonly also called the Indian Empire by the British. As "India", it was a founding member of the League of Nations, and a participating nation in the Summer Olympics in 1900, 1920, 1928, 1932, and 1936.
The system of governance was instituted in 1858, when the rule of the British East India Company was transferred to the Crown in the person of Queen Victoria (who in 1876 was proclaimed Empress of India), and lasted until 1947, when the British Indian Empire was partitioned into two sovereign dominion states, the Union of India (later the Republic of India) and the Dominion of Pakistan (later the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, the eastern half of which, still later, became the People's Republic of Bangladesh). At the inception of the Raj in 1858, Lower Burma was already a part of British India; Upper Burma was added in 1886, and the resulting union, Burma, was administered as a province until 1937, when it became a separate British colony which gained its own independence in 1948.
The budget of the Raj covered municipal affairs, the police, the small but highly trained Indian Civil Service that ran government operations, and the Indian Army, was paid entirely by Indians through taxes, especially on farmland and on salt. The large, well-trained Indian Army played major roles in both World Wars; the rest of the time it trained to fight off a possible Russian invasion through Afghanistan. The great majority of the Indian people were very poor farmers; economic growth at 1% a year was neutralized by population growth of 1%.
Other articles related to "british, british raj":
... Old Church, London, 22 July 1847 - Epsom, Surrey, 17 November 1930), British Vice Consul in Surabaya and wife Sophia Jane Wilson (St Pancras, London, 17 May ... Auckland Region, New Zealand, 25 June 1932), New Zealand-born British fashion model, married as his third wife at Lugano-Castagnola, 17 September 1956, Baron Hans Heinrich Thyssen-Bornemisza (2 April 1921 ...
... Main articles Famines, epidemics, and public health in the British Raj and Timeline of major famines in India during British rule (1765 to 1947) See also Chalisa famine, Doji bara famine, Agra famine of 1837–38 ... While encouraging agricultural productivity, the British also provided economic incentives to have more children to help in the fields. 1905–1906 0.23 Bengal famine of 1943 1943–1944 5 During the British Raj, India experienced some of the worst famines ever recorded, including the Great Famine of 1876–1878, in which 6.1 million to 10.3 ...
... The British Raj was instituted in 1858, when the rule of the East India Company was transferred to the Crown ... In 1876, British India became the first non-founding member of the General Postal Union ... A number of acts were passed during the British Raj to expand and regulate Posts and Telegraphs service The Government Savings Bank Act 1873 (5 of 1873 ...
... people of village Sawal Dher also win a law suit in British Raj Courts against the establishment of the village ... Settlement of the irrigated land was done during the British Raj ... higher amount of land then average,include wazir dad known as barbarian.In 1840 he fought against British raj ...
Famous quotes containing the words raj and/or british:
“Dogmatic toleration is nonsense: I would no more tolerate the teaching of Calvinism to children if I had power to persecute it than the British Raj tolerated suttee in India. Every civilized authority must draw a line between the tolerable and the intolerable.”
—George Bernard Shaw (18561950)
“Gorgonised me from head to foot,
With a stony British stare.”
—Alfred Tennyson (18091892)