Base Pair

Base Pair

Base pairs are the building blocks of the DNA double helix, and contribute to the folded structure of both DNA and RNA. Dictated by specific hydrogen bonding patterns, Watson-Crick base pairs (guanine-cytosine and adenine-thymine) allow the DNA helix to maintain a regular helical structure that is independent of its nucleotide sequence. The complementary nature of this based-paired structure provides a backup copy of all genetic information encoded within double-stranded DNA. The regular structure and data redundancy provided by the DNA helix make DNA an optimal molecule for the storage of genetic information, while base-pairing between DNA and incoming nucleotides provide the mechanism through which DNA polymerase replicates DNA, and RNA polymerase transcribes DNA into RNA. Many DNA-binding proteins can recognize specific base pairing patterns that identify particular regulatory regions of genes.

Intramolecular base pairs can occur within single-stranded nucleic acids. This is particularly important in RNA molecules (e.g. transfer RNA), where Watson-Crick base pairs (G-C and A-U) permit the formation of short double-stranded helices, and a wide variety of non-Watson-Crick interactions (e.g. G-U or A-A) allow RNAs to fold into a vast range of specific three-dimensional structures. In addition, base-paring between transfer RNA (tRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) form the basis for the molecular recognition events that result in the nucleotide sequence of mRNA becoming translated into the amino acid sequence of proteins.

The size of an individual gene or an organism's entire genome is often measured in base pairs because DNA is usually double-stranded. Hence, the number of total base pairs is equal to the number of nucleotides in one of the strands (with the exception of non-coding single-stranded regions of telomeres). The haploid human genome (23 chromosomes) is estimated to be about 3.2 billion base pairs long and to contain 20,000–25,000 distinct genes. A kilobase (kb) is a unit of measurement in molecular biology equal to 1000 base pairs of DNA or RNA.

Read more about Base Pair:  Hydrogen Bonding and Stability, Base Stacking, Base Analogs and Intercalators, Examples

Other articles related to "base, base pair, base pairs, bases":

Activation-induced (cytidine) Deaminase
... AID removes the amino group from a cytidine base, turning it into a uridine (which is recognized as a thymidine) ... In other words, it changes a CG base pair into a UG base pair, which the cell's DNA repair machinery recognizes as a TG base pair, and finally ends up as a TA base pair ...
Replisome - Solving The Challenges of DNA Replication - High-fidelity DNA Replication - Proof-reading and Error Correction
... Although rare, incorrect base pairing polymerisation does occur during chain elongation ... in the form of a 3' to 5' exonuclease domain that is capable of removing base pairs from the exposed 3' end of the growing chain ... Error correction is possible because base pair errors distort the position of the magnesium ions in the polymerisation sub-unit, and the structural-chemical distortion of the ...
Base Pair - Examples - Length Measurements
... the length of a D/RNA molecule bp = base pair(s)—one bp corresponds to approximately 3.4 Å of length along the strand kb (= kbp) = kilo base pairs = 1,000 bp Mb = mega base pairs = 1,000,000 bp Gb = giga base ... For distinction between units of computer storage and bases kbp, Mbp, Gbp, etc ... may be used for base pairs ...
Doublehelix - Base Pair Geometry
... The geometry of a base, or base pair step can be characterized by 6 coordinates Shift, slide, rise, tilt, roll, and twist ... precisely define the location and orientation in space of every base or base pair in a nucleic acid molecule relative to its predecessor along the axis of the helix ... For each base pair, considered relative to its predecessor, there are the following base pair geometries to consider Shear Stretch Stagger Buckle Propeller twist rotation of ...
Murrah High School - Special Programs - Base Pair Program
... of Mississippi Medical Center (UMC) in the Base Pair research mentorship program funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute ... The primary focus for Base Pair is to utilize the physical resources and intellectual capital of UMC to enable the pursuit of excellence in science education within a local public school environment ... Base Pair has consistently emphasized three objectives To cultivate career awareness among high school students in areas related to biomedical research ...

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