Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 ) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist and theologian, who has been considered by many to be the greatest and most influential scientist who ever lived. His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, published in 1687, laid the foundations for most of classical mechanics. In this work, Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion, which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. Newton showed that the motion of objects on Earth and that of celestial bodies is governed by the same set of natural laws: by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation he removed the last doubts about heliocentrism and advanced the scientific revolution. The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written, both due to the specific physical laws the work successfully described, and for its style, which assisted in setting standards for scientific publication down to the present time.
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... The Chronology of Ancient Kingdoms is an approximately 87,000-word composition written by Sir Isaac Newton, first published posthumously in 1728 in limited supply, but since republished in mass ... The work represents one of Newton's forays into the topic of chronology, detailing the rise and history of various ancient kingdoms throughout antiquity ... First is an introductory letter to the Queen of England by Newton's estate manager John Conduitt, followed by a short advertisement ...
... Isaac Newton hardly spoke and had few friends ... After Newton's death, however, his body was found to contain massive amounts of mercury, probably from his alchemical pursuits, which could have accounted for his eccentricity in later life ...
... Before he was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705, the scientist Isaac Newton submitted to the College of Heralds a genealogy in which he claimed a common male ... most famous savants in the world, but in reality Isaac Newton's ancestry is obscure and the male line cannot be documented beyond his grandfather ... The heraldic device of the Newton baronets (blazoned as "sable, two shinbones in saltire argent, the dexter surmounted of the sinister") was adopted ...
... engineering were laid in the 17th century by Galileo Galilei, Robert Hooke and Isaac Newton with the publication of three great scientific works ... Eleven years later, in 1687, Sir Isaac Newton published Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, setting out his Laws of Motion, providing for the first time an understanding ... Also in the 17th century, Sir Isaac Newton and Gottfried Leibniz both independently developed the Fundamental theorem of calculus, providing one of the most important mathematical tools in engineering ...
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“I do not know what I may appear to the world; but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself in now and then finding a smoother pebble or a prettier shell than ordinary, whilst the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me.”
—Isaac Newton (16421727)
“I frame no hypotheses; for whatever is not deduced from the phenomena is to be called a hypothesis; and hypotheses, whether metaphysical or physical, whether of occult qualities or mechanical, have no place in experimental philosophy.”
—Isaac Newton (16421727)
“Behold, Esau my brother is a hairy man, and I am a smooth man.”
—Bible: Hebrew Jacob, in Genesis, 27:11.
To his mother Rebekah, explaining how the blind Isaac might discover the ploy of his pretending to be Esau. Esau was a cunning hunter, a man of the field; and Jacob was a plain man, dwelling in tents. (25:27)