The Sukhoi Su-25 (NATO reporting name: "Frogfoot") is a single-seat, twin-engine jet aircraft developed in the Soviet Union by the Sukhoi Design Bureau. It was designed to provide close air support for the Soviet Ground Forces. The first prototype made its maiden flight on 22 February 1975. After testing, the aircraft went into series production in 1978 at Tbilisi in the Soviet Republic of Georgia. Russian air and ground forces nicknamed it "Grach" ("Rook").
Early variants included the Su-25UB two-seat trainer, the Su-25BM for target-towing, and the Su-25K for export customers. A part of existing aircraft are being upgraded to Su-25SM version as of 2012. The Su-25T and the Su-25TM (also known as Su-39) were further developments, not produced in numbers. In 2007, the Su-25, along the Su-34, were the only armoured fixed-wing aircraft in production. Su-25 is currently in service with Russia and various other CIS states as well as export customers.
During its more than 25 years in service, the Su-25 has seen combat in several conflicts. It was heavily involved in the Soviet war in Afghanistan, flying counter-insurgency missions against the Mujahideen. The Iraqi Air Force employed Su-25s against Iran during the 1980–89 Iran–Iraq War. Most of them were later destroyed or fled to Iran in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. In 1993, Abkhazian separatists used Su-25s against Georgians during the Abkhazian War. Eight years later, the Macedonian Air Force employed Su-25s against Albanian insurgents in the 2001 Macedonia conflict, and in 2008, Georgia and Russia both used Su-25s in the Russo-Georgian War. African states, including the Ivory Coast, Chad, and Sudan have used the Su-25 in local insurgencies and civil wars.
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... General characteristics Crew one pilot Length 15.33 m (50 ft 11) Wingspan 14.36 m (47 ft 1 in) Height 4.80 m (15 ft 9 in) Wing area 30.1 m² (324 ft²) Empty weight 10,740 kg (23,677 lb) Loaded weight 16,990 kg (37,456 lb) Max ... takeoff weight 20,500 kg (45,194 lb) Powerplant 2 × Tumansky R-195 turbojets, 44.18 kN (9,480 lbf) each Performance Maximum speed 950 km/h (590 mph, Mach 0.77) Combat radius 375 km (235 mi) Ferry range 2,500 km (1,553 mi) Service ceiling 7,000 m (23,000 ft) Rate of climb 58 m/s (11,400 ft/min) Wing loading 584 kg/m² (119 lb/ft²) Thrust/weight 0.51 Armament 1 × GSh-30-2 30mm cannon with 250 rounds 11 hardpoints for up to 4,400 kg (9,700 lb) of disposable ordnance, including rails for 2 × R-60 (AA-8 'Aphid') or other air-to-air missiles for self-defence and a wide variety of general-purpose bombs, cluster bombs, gun pods, rocket pods, laser-guided bombs, and air-to-surface missiles such as the Kh-25ML or Kh-29L ...