The effect of sexual response is thought to be a plastic positive reinforcement behavior modifier associated with the Baldwin effect. The end result of these sorts of things can be very novel structures such as the pseudo-penis of the female spotted hyena. The display of secondary sex characteristics in humans such as a penis-like enlarged clitoris in females during arousal and gynecomastia in males are thought to have once been objects of mate selection in human evolution because of the persistence of the phenomenon of these features invoking sexual arousal for potential mates in cross-cultural studies. A dramatic example of this is the high rates of secondary sex characteristic dimorphism in some Southeast Asia human populations.
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