Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 – 16 April 1958) was a British biophysicist and X-ray crystallographer who made critical contributions to the understanding of the fine molecular structures of DNA, RNA, viruses, coal, and graphite. The DNA work achieved the most fame because DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) plays essential roles in cell metabolism and genetics, and the discovery of its structure helped scientists understand how genetic information is passed from parents to children.
Franklin is best known for her work on the X-ray diffraction images of DNA which led to discovery of DNA double helix. Her data, according to Francis Crick, was "the data we actually used" to formulate Crick and Watson's 1953 hypothesis regarding the structure of DNA. Franklin's images of X-ray diffraction confirming the helical structure of DNA were shown to Watson without her approval or knowledge. Though this image and her accurate interpretation of the data provided valuable insight into the DNA structure, Franklin's scientific contributions to the discovery of the double helix are often overlooked. Unpublished drafts of her papers (written just as she was arranging to leave King's College London) show that she had independently determined the overall B-form of the DNA helix and the location of the phosphate groups on the outside of the structure. Moreover, Franklin personally told Crick and Watson that the backbones had to be on the outside, which was crucial since before this both they and Linus Pauling had independently generated non-illuminating models with the chains inside and the bases pointing outwards. However, her work was published third, in the series of three DNA Nature articles, led by the paper of Watson and Crick which only hinted at her contribution to their hypothesis.
After finishing her portion of the work on DNA, Franklin led pioneering work on the tobacco mosaic virus and the polio virus. She died in 1958 at the age of 37 of ovarian cancer.
Other articles related to "rosalind franklin, rosalind, franklin":
... Rosalind Franklin produced a number of publications, some cited a number of times ... Bangham and Rosalind E.Franklin (1946), Thermal Expansion of Coals and Carbonised Coals, "Thermal expansion of coals and carbonised coals", Transactions of ... Franklin (1949), "A study of the fine structure of carbonaceous solids by measurements of true and apparent densities Part 1 ...
... Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science (RFUMS) is a private graduate school located in North Chicago, Illinois ... The university is named for Rosalind Franklin, the DNA crystallographer ... Rosalind Franklin captured Photo 51 in 1952 while at King's College, London ...
... Rosalind Franklin University has a school of podiatry, named the Dr ... Scholl College's program is closely integrated with CMS and other colleges at Rosalind Franklin ... The Center for Lower Extremity Ambulatory Research (CLEAR) at Rosalind Franklin conducts research with a special emphasis on the diabetic foot and limb preservation ...
... booked leaned heavily on personalities, and some, like Rosalind Franklin, were treated cartoonishly ... Burton Feldman In the book Rosalind Franklin and DNA, author Anne Sayre is very critical of Watson's account ... book did not give a balanced description of Rosalind Franklin and the nature of her interactions with Maurice Wilkins at King's College, London ...
... Francis Crick Erwin Chargaff Jerry Donohue Rosalind Franklin Raymond Gosling Phoebus Levene Friedrich Miescher Sir John Randall Alex Stokes James Watson Maurice Wilkins Herbert Wilson In the mid-1930s ... They later benefited from unpublished data from Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin at King's College which showed evidence for a helix and planar base stacking along the helix axis ... During the time Pauling was researching the problem, Rosalind Franklin in England was creating the world's best images ...
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