Productive Forces

Productive forces, "productive powers" or "forces of production" is a central idea in Marxism and historical materialism.

In Karl Marx and Frederick Engels's own critique of political economy, it refers to the combination of the means of labor (tools, machinery, land, infrastructure and so on) with human labour power. Marx and Engels probably derived the concept from Adam Smith's reference to the "productive powers of labour" (see e.g. chapter 8 of The Wealth of Nations), although the German political economist Friedrich List also mentions the concept of "productive powers" in The National System of Political Economy (1841).

All those forces which are applied by people in the production process (body & brain, tools & techniques, materials, resources and equipment) are encompassed by this concept, including those management and engineering functions technically indispensable for production (as contrasted with social control functions). Human knowledge can also be a productive force.

Together with the social and technical relations of production, the productive forces, constitute a historically specific mode of production.

Read more about Productive ForcesProductive Forces and Labour, Productive Forces and Destructive Forces, Marxist-Leninist Definition of Productive Forces in The Soviet Union, Productive Force Determinism, Productive Forces and The Reification of Technology, Productive Forces and Productivity, Critique of Technology

Other articles related to "productive forces, forces, productive force":

Chinese Socialism - Primary Stage of Socialism
... bypass the primary stage of socialism, in which the productive forces are to be modernized ... The fundamental task of socialism is to develop the productive forces, therefore the main aim during the primary stage should be the further development ... developing the economy by emancipating and modernizing the forces of production while developing a market economy ...
Surplus Product and Socio-economic Inequality Between People
... "All conquests of freedom hitherto have been based on restricted productive forces ... The production which these productive forces could provide was insufficient for the whole of society and made development possible only if some persons satisfied their needs at the expense of others, and ... until the birth of new revolutionary productive forces) excluded from any development ...
Stateless Communism
... of society which Karl Marx predicted would inevitably result from the development of the productive forces ... of social development where material and productive forces are advanced to a degree where actual freedom (freedom from necessity, and thus from wage labor and alienation from work) for ... In such conditions the development of productive forces and the victorious course of the class struggle systematically prepare the transition to the swallowing up of the political ...
Chinese Socialism - Socialist Market Economy
... Marxism attaches utmost importance to developing the productive forces ... This calls for highly developed productive forces and an overwhelming abundance of material wealth ... Therefore, the fundamental task for the socialist stage is to develop the productive forces ...
Productive Forces - Critique of Technology
... In that case, productive forces are transformed into destructive forces ... Productive force determinism is then criticised on the ground that whatever technologies are adopted, these are the result of human choices between technical alternatives ...

Famous quotes containing the words forces and/or productive:

    What if all the forces of society were bent upon developing [poor] children? What if society’s business were making people instead of profits? How much of their creative beauty of spirit would remain unquenched through the years? How much of this responsiveness would follow them through life?
    Mary Heaton Vorse (1874–1966)

    It was not sufficient for the disquiet of our minds that we disputed at the end of seventeen hundred years upon the articles of our own religion, but we must likewise introduce into our quarrels those of the Chinese. This dispute, however, was not productive of any great disturbances, but it served more than any other to characterize that busy, contentious, and jarring spirit which prevails in our climates.
    Voltaire [Fran├žois Marie Arouet] (1694–1778)