There are still relatively few academic programs with this explicit focus. The first one began at the University of Michigan, as a joint project between their College of Engineering and School of Pharmacy. Because such programs are not yet common, many pharmaceutical engineers have had their formal engineering training in chemical or biomedical engineering.
Most Pharmaceutical Engineering programs are graduate-level, and as with Biomedical Engineering there is generally an expectation that engineers and scientists working in pharmaceutical engineering should have some relevant graduate-level education. Many have a masters or PhD degree in chemical or biomedical engineering, or a related science. In Italy there is a university degree course (5 years) in Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Technologies(Chimica e Tecnologie Farmaceutiche), different to pharmacy, that ability as a pharmacist and different roles in the industry as an engineer (for the Italian legislation is not really an engineer though performs the same tasks ).
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