Petroleum

Petroleum (L. petroleum, from Latin: 'petra' (rock) + Latin: oleum (oil)) or crude oil is a naturally occurring flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. A fossil fuel, it is formed when large quantities of dead organisms, usually zooplankton and algae, are buried underneath sedimentary rock and undergo intense heat and pressure.

Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling. This comes after the studies of structural geology (at the reservoir scale), sedimentary basin analysis, reservoir characterization (mainly in terms of porosity and permeable structures). It is refined and separated, most easily by boiling point, into a large number of consumer products, from petrol (or gasoline) and kerosene to asphalt and chemical reagents used to make plastics and pharmaceuticals. Petroleum is used in manufacturing a wide variety of materials, and it is estimated that the world consumes about 88 million barrels each day.

The use of fossil fuels such as petroleum can have a negative impact on Earth's biosphere, releasing pollutants and greenhouse gases into the air and damaging ecosystems through events such as oil spills. Concern over the depletion of the earth's finite reserves of oil, and the effect this would have on a society dependent on it, is a field known as peak oil.

Read more about Petroleum:  Etymology, Composition, Chemistry, Formation, Classification, Petroleum Industry, History, Price, Uses, Environmental Effects, Alternatives To Petroleum, Future of Petroleum Production

Other articles related to "petroleum":

Future of Petroleum Production - Peak Oil
... Peak Oil is the scientific projection that future petroleum production (whether for individual oil wells, entire oil fields, whole countries, or worldwide production) will eventually peak and then decline at a ... Since virtually all economic sectors rely heavily on petroleum, peak oil could lead to a "partial or complete failure of markets" - or, simply an orderly transition to 100 per cent ...
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... In 2007 the company acquired Ener Petroleum for £24 million as well as Devon Energy Corporation's oil and gas operations in Egypt for US$375 million ... In June 2010, Dana Petroleum agreed to acquire Petro Canada Netherlands from Suncor Energy for around $393 million, then later in September 2010 the company announced a further $3 ... On 2 July 2010 Dana Petroleum confirmed it had received a £1.5 billion takeover bid ...
Gull Petroleum
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Petroleum Institute
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