The **output impedance**, **source impedance**, or **internal impedance** of an electronic device is the opposition exhibited by its output terminals to an alternating current (AC) of a particular frequency as a result of resistance, inductance and capacitance. It is the Thévenin equivalent impedance looking back into the output terminals.

In the case of a nonlinear device, such as a transistor, the term "output impedance" usually refers to the effect upon a small-amplitude signal, and will vary with the bias point of the transistor, that is, with the direct current (DC) and voltage applied to the device.

The small-signal impedance at DC (frequency of 0) is the same as the resistive component of the impedance and is termed **output resistance**.

No real device (battery, generator, amplifier) is a perfect source; each has an internal impedance, though this may have little practical effect, depending on the circuit and the load.

Depending on perspective, this impedance can be modeled as being in series with an ideal voltage source, or in parallel with an ideal current source (*see*: Thevenin's theorem, Norton's theorem, Series and parallel circuits). Both models are equivalent, and one may choose whichever model is most convenient for analysis.

For example, having a preamplifier with a 100-ohm output impedance means the output voltage signal appears to be in series with a 100-ohm resistor.

Read more about Output Impedance: Measurement, Audio Amplifiers, Batteries

### Other articles related to "output impedance, output, output impedances":

**Output Impedance**s and Frequency Response

... A circuit is a current source only to the extent that its

**output**current is independent of its

**output**voltage ... In the circuits of Figures 1 and 2, the

**output**voltage of importance is the potential from the collector of Q3 to ground ... The measure of that independence is the

**output impedance**of the circuit, the ratio of a change in

**output**voltage to the change in current it causes ...

... the transistor pairs M1-M2 and M3-M4 are exactly matched and the input and

**output**potentials are approximately equal, then in principle there is no static error, the. 5 forces the drain current of M1 to equal the input current and the

**output**configuration assures that the

**output**current equals the drain current of M2 ... effect of lowering the contribution of the mirror transistors to the

**output**current noise because the drain current noise density in a MOSFET is proportional to the transconductance and therefore ...

**Output Impedance**

... In an ideal current or transconductance amplifier the

**output impedance**approaches infinity, while practically all commercial audio amplifiers are voltage amplifiers, and their

**output impedances**have been ... Due to the nature of vacuum tubes and audio transformers, the

**output impedance**of an average tube amplifier is usually considerably higher than of the modern audio amplifiers produced completely ... Thus, most tube amplifiers with their higher

**output impedance**are closer to the idea of a transconductance amplifier than the solid state voltage amplifiers ...

**Output Impedance**- Current Dependence of Output Resistance

... resistor values is in ohms, and is the

**output**resistance due to the Early effect when VCB = 0 V (device parameter VA is the Early voltage). 6 shows that a value of

**output**resistance much larger than rO of the

**output**transistor results only for designs with IC1 >> IC2 ... Figure 3 shows that the circuit

**output**resistance RO is not determined so much by feedback as by the current dependence of the resistance rO of the

**output**...

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And gave her mother forty whacks;

When she saw what she had done,

She gave her father forty-one.”

—Anonymous. Late 19th century ballad.

The quatrain refers to the famous case of Lizzie Borden, tried for the murder of her father and stepmother on Aug. 4, 1892, in Fall River, Massachusetts. Though she was found innocent, there were many who contested the verdict, occasioning a prodigious *output* of articles and books, including, most recently, Frank Spiering’s Lizzie (1985)