After his father, Tekish died, Muhammad inherited his lands, and it was from there he began expanding outwards. By 1205 he had conquered all of Persia from the Seljuk Turks.
Muhammad frequently clashed with Ghurids for hegemony at Khorasan region and with Western Karakhanids for Maveraünnehir. He conquered Herat in 1204, Balkh, regions of Cüzcan and Tokharistan. After defeating Muhammad of Ghor at the battle of Andkhvoy in 1205, he took Sistan from Ghurids in 1206. He captured Samarkand (captured by Karakhanids in 1208) in 1207 from the Kara Khitay, Tabaristan in 1210 from Ghurids and Maveraünnehir from Western Karakhanids. He pursued expansionist policy and conquered Tashkent and Fergana from Western Karakhanids and regions of Makran and Balochistan from Ghurids and Atabegs of Azerbaijan become his vassals in 1211. He finally destroyed Western Karakhanids in 1212 and Ghurids in 1215 annexing with their remainder territories. During 1212 the city of Samarkand revolted killing 8,000-10,000 Khwarezmians living there. Muhammad, in retaliation, sacked the city and executed 10,000 citizens of Samarkand.
By 1217 he had conquered all the lands from the river Jaxartes to the Persian Gulf he declared himself shah and demanded formal recognition from the caliph in Baghdad. When the caliph an-Nasir rejected his claim, Ala ad-Din Muhammad gathered an army and marched towards Baghdad to depose an-Nasir. However, when crossing the Zagros Mountains, the shah's army was caught in a blizzard. Thousands of warriors died and with the army decimated the generals had no choice but to return home.
Read more about this topic: Muhammad II Of Khwarezm
Other articles related to "reign":
... the dies for this denomination in the reign of King James II ... In this reign, the weight of the coins varied between 41.5 and 42.0 grams ... The kings' head faces left in this reign, and is surrounded by the inscription, while the obverse is the same as in Charles II's reign except for omitting the ...
... Haakon employed an active and aggressive foreign policy towards strengthening Norwegian ties in the west ... His policy relied on friendship and trade with the English king the first known Norwegian trade agreements were made with England in the years 1217–23 (England's first commercial treaties were also made with Norway), and the friendship with Henry III of England was a cornerstone in Haakon's foreign policy ...
... The coins of this reign weighed 41.7–41.8 grams ... shillings and sixpence by the start of George's reign ... The regnal years for this reign are 1716 SECVNDO 1717 TERTIO 1720 SEXTO 1726 DECIMO TERTIO ...
... King Humbert II of Italy reigned for only a few weeks in 1946 before the abolition of the Italian Monarchy ... Tsar Nicholas II of Russia reigned from 1894 to 1917 during the Russian Revolution when he was forced to abdicate and the Russian Empire was overthrown. ...
... His reign lasted for 46 years, longer than any Norwegian king before him ... born into the troubled civil war era in Norway, but his reign eventually managed to put an end to the internal conflicts ... At the start of his reign, during his minority, his later rival Earl Skule Bårdsson served as regent ...
Famous quotes containing the word reign:
“The reign of imagagology begins where history ends.”
—Milan Kundera (b. 1929)
“Better to reign in Hell than serve in Heaven.”
—John Milton (16081674)
“For sovreign powr reign not alone,
Grace is the partner of the throne;
Thy grace and justice mighty Lord,
Shall well divide our last reward.”
—Isaac Watts (16741748)