The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: listen Mongol-yn Ezent Güren; Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries A.D., and was the largest contiguous land empire in human history. Beginning in the Central Asian steppes, it eventually stretched from Eastern Europe to the Sea of Japan, covering large parts of Siberia in the north and extending southward into Southeast Asia, the Indian subcontinent, the Iranian plateau, and the Middle East. At its greatest extent it spanned 9,700 km (6,000 mi), covered an area of 24,000,000 km2 (9,300,000 sq mi), 16% of the Earth's total land area, and held sway over a population of 100 million.
The Mongol Empire emerged from the unification of Mongol and Turkic tribes of historical Mongolia under the leadership of Genghis Khan. Genghis Khan was proclaimed ruler of all Mongols in 1206. The empire grew rapidly under his rule and then under the rule of his descendants, who sent invasions in every direction. The vast transcontinental empire which connected the east with the west with an enforced Pax Mongolica allowed trade, technologies, commodities and ideologies to be disseminated and exchanged across Eurasia.
The empire began to split as a result of wars over succession, as the grandchildren of Genghis Khan disputed whether the royal line should follow from Genghis's son and initial heir Ögedei, or one of his other sons such as Tolui, Chagatai, or Jochi. The Toluids prevailed after a bloody purge of Ögedeid and Chagataid factions, but disputes continued even among the descendants of Tolui. When one Great Khan died, rival kurultai councils would simultaneously elect different successors, such as the brothers Ariq Böke and Kublai, they were both elected and then not only had to defy each other, but also deal with challenges from descendants of other of Genghis's sons. Kublai successfully took power, but civil war ensued, as Kublai sought, unsuccessfully, to regain control of the Chagatayid and Ögedeid families.
By the time of Kublai's death in 1294, the Mongol Empire had fractured into four separate khanates or empires, each pursuing its own separate interests and objectives: the Golden Horde khanate in the northwest, the Chagatai Khanate in the west, the Ilkhanate in the southwest, and the Yuan Dynasty based in modern-day Beijing. In 1304, the three western khanates briefly accepted the nominal suzerainty of the Yuan Dynasty, but when it was overthrown by the Han Chinese Ming Dynasty in 1368, the Mongol Empire finally dissolved.
... Xiaoxiangzi (traditional Chinese 蕭湘子 simplified Chinese 萧湘子 Mandarin Pinyin Xiāoxiāngzǐ Jyutping Siu1-soeng1-zi2) is a martial artist from Xiangxi ... He steals the Nine Yang Manual from Shaolin Monastery with Yinkexi and hide it inside the stomach of a white gorilla ...
... The Khwarezmid Empire only lasted for a few decades, until the arrival of the Mongols ... Genghis Khan had unified the Mongols, and under him the Mongol Empire quickly expanded in several directions, until by 1218 it bordered Khwarezm ... At that time, the Khwarezmid Empire was ruled by Ala ad-Din Muhammad (1200–1220) ...
... This is the timeline of the Mongol Empire from 1206, when Temüjin received the title of Chinggis Khan, to the death in 1370 of the last emperor of Yuan Dynasty in China, who had been deposed ... The Yuan emperors used the title of Khagan (Great Khan, or Emperor) of the Mongols as successors to Genghis as overlord of all the Mongol dominions, though after the death of Kublai Khan in 1294 ... The Mongol Empire is usually considered to have come to an end in 1368, though the title of Khagan continued to be used by the rulers of Northern Yuan Dynasty in Mongolia, a far less powerful ...
... See also History of Mongolia The Mongol Empire had a lasting impact, unifying large regions, some of which (such as eastern and western Russia and the western parts of China) remain ... The Mongols, except the main population, might have been assimilated into local populations after the fall of the empire, and some of these descendants adopted ... to massive changes as a result of Mongol invasions ...
... Turco-Mongolian heritage provided opportunities and challenges as he sought to rule the Mongol Empire and the Muslim world ... According to the Mongol traditions, Timur could not claim the title of khan or rule the Mongol Empire because he was not a descendant of Genghis Khan ... that of Chinggis Khan's eldest son, Jochi." To reinforce his position in the Mongol Empire, Timur managed to acquire the royal title of son-in-law when he married a princess of Chinggisid descent ...
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