Middle English

Middle English describes dialects of English in the history of the English language between the High and Late Middle Ages, or roughly during the three centuries between the late 12th and the late 15th century.

Middle English developed out of Late Old English in Norman England (1066–1154) and was spoken throughout the Plantagenet era (1154–1485). The Middle English period ended at about 1470, when the Chancery Standard, a form of London-based English, began to become widespread, a process aided by the introduction of the printing press to England by William Caxton in the late 1470s. By that time the variant of the Northumbrian dialect (prevalent in Northern England) spoken in southeast Scotland was developing into the Scots language. The language of England as used after 1470 and up to 1650 is known as Early Modern English.

Unlike Old English, which tended largely to adopt Late West Saxon scribal conventions in the period immediately before the Norman conquest of England, written Middle English displays a wide variety of scribal (and presumably dialectal) forms. This diversity suggests the gradual end of the role of Wessex as a focal point and trend-setter for writers and scribes, the emergence of more distinct local scribal styles and written dialects, and a general pattern of transition of activity over the centuries that followed, as Northumbria, East Anglia, and London successively emerged as major centres of English literature, each with their own particular interests.

Middle English literature of the 12th and 13th centuries is comparatively rare, as written communication was usually in Anglo-Norman or in Medieval Latin. Middle English became much more important as a literary language during the 14th century, with poets such as Chaucer and Langland.

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Other articles related to "middle english, english, middle":

Middle English - Sample Texts - Gower, 1390
... Original in Middle English Of hem that writen ous tofore The bokes duelle, and we therfore Ben tawht of that was write tho Forthi good is that we also In oure tyme among ous hiere Do wryte of newe som matiere ... of the more Som man mai lyke of that I wryte Translation into Modern English (by Richard Brodie) Of those who wrote before our lives Their precious legacy survives From what was written then, we learn, And so it’s ... one breeds A paucity of wit, and so If you agree I’ll choose to go Along a kind of middle ground Sometimes I’ll write of things profound, And sometimes for amusement’s ...
Books By J. R. R. Tolkien - Academic and Other Works
... 1922 A Middle English Vocabulary, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 168 pp. 1925 Some Contributions to Middle-English Lexicography, published in The Review of English Studies, volume 1, no ... Devil's Coach Horses, published in The Review of English Studies, volume 1, no ...
List Of Spanish Words Of Germanic Origin - By Origin - Anglo-Frisian - Old English
... Italian arlecchino, from Old French Herlequin "mythic chief of a tribe", probably from Middle English Herle king, from Old English Herla cyning, Herla ... a small, uncovered boat from Old French bot, from Middle English bot, boot, from Old English bāt, from Germanic (*)bait-, from the IE root (*)bheid- "to split" ... este= east from French est, from Middle English est, from Old English ēast, from Germanic (*)aust-, from the IE root (*)awes-, aus "to shine" ...
List Of Portuguese Words Of Germanic Origin - Middle English
... beisebol= baseball from Modern English, from base (from Old French base, from Latin basis "base, pedestal", from Ancient Greek βασις basis, from βαινειν bainein "to go, to come", from ... boxear= to box from Middle English box ...
List Of Presidents Of The United States By Name - Last Name Origins
... from Glympton in Oxfordshire, named as ‘settlement (Old English tun) on the Glym river’, a Celtic river name meaning ‘bright stream’, or from Glinton in Cambridgeshire, recorded in 1060 as Clinton (named with. 39 Jimmy Carter Occupational name for a transporter of goods, Middle English cartere, from an agent derivative of Middle English cart(e) or from Anglo-Norman French car(e)tier, a ... The Old French word coalesced with the earlier Middle English word cart(e) ‘cart’, which is from either Old Norse kartr or Old English cræt, both of which, like ...

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