Metagaming (role-playing Games)
In role-playing games, metagaming can be defined as any out of character action made by a player's character which makes use of knowledge that the character is not meant to be aware of. (Metagaming while taking part in relatively competitive games, or those with a more serious tone, is typically not well received, because a character played by a metagamer does not act in a way that reflects the character's in-game experiences and back-story.)
Other articles related to "metagaming":
... Examples of metagaminginclude Adjusting a character'sactions based on foreknowledge of the long-term intentions of the gamemaster ... defense based on the strengths and weaknesses of an opponent that the player'scharacter is unaware of ... Acting on any knowledge that the character is not aware of such as creating gunpowder in a Dark Ages or Middle Ages setting) ...